This page allows you to see two different ways to solve a problem:
- traditionally, using algorithmic representations given here as a model desribed in pseudocode and as a graphycal representation, process flowchart (program flowchart) and as implementation in Python and Visual Basic;
- modern, using Business Rules, as a natural way to describe our knowledge, as required by the Knowledge Society. The implementation is realized by intemediate of the product ARulesXL.

Natural Description: Solving Problems - Using Business Rules of ARulesXl Rules Engine
«The Payroll Problem»

Click to open the tutorial and download the spreadsheet sample: Open the page containing the steps you must follow to realize that solution or to download an example, a spreadsheet (in Excel), implementing that solution. To see the spreadsheet at work you must have installed ARulesXL, otherwise this do not react to changes.
The formulation of the problem is the one here, down. You can make a comparison what is the diference betwee the algorithmic solution and the one with business rules (the foundation for IT management solution for Knowledge Management), the Payroll Problem modeled with rules.

Pseudocode/ Flowchart: Solving Problems - Algorithms Representation
«The Payroll Problem»

Theme Formulation

In Romania, for full-time employees, during normal working hours is 8 hours per day and 40 hours per week (MaxNoOvertime). For all hours worked in a week over ( these 40 hours a week) the company must pay its employee (with overtime working) one time and half (BonusRate) the normal salary per hour. The employees that earn a salary more than 150€ per week must pay a supplemental tax  of 25% (due) from what is more than 150€ (MaxNoDue).


Write a pseudocode/flowchart to compute an employee's overtime pay and net pay.

A Solution to the problem

We know:

         We want:

We need to supply to the algorithm the values for:

A) A pseudocode solution


S1. Start;
S2. Initialize the known variables: max hours worked with no overtime (MaxNoOvertime), bonus rate for overtime hours (BonusRate),
non taxable payroll amount (MaxNoDue), tax rate (Due);
S3. Enter hours worked overtime (HoursWorked) and hourly rate (HourRate);
S4. If (HourWorked-MaxNoOvertime)<=0 Then
    GrossPay=HourRate*(MaxNoOvertime + BonusRate*(HoursWorked-MaxNoOvertime));
S5. If GrossPay<=MaxNoDue Then
S6. Display GrossPay, NetPay;
S7. End.

B) A flowchart solution

A  flowchart representation of the algorithm for the Payroll Problem can be:

A flowcart algorithm for the Payroll problem

C) An Implementation Solution in Python

def payroll(HoursWorked=0.0,HourRate=0.0):
    # to prevent usage of integral division
    # a simple way to convert integer argument passed
    # at runtime and we prepare the input parameters
    HoursWorked = 1.0 * HoursWorked
    HourRate = 1.0 * HourRate
    # initialize the known variables
    # processing
    if (HoursWorked-MaxNoOvertime)<=0:
    if GrossPay<=MaxNoDue:
    else:         NetPay=GrossPay-Due*(GrossPay-MaxNoDue)
    print ("Gross pay="+ str(GrossPay)+'\nNet pay ='+str(NetPay)+"\nTax Val. ="+str(GrossPay-NetPay))

Here is a capture of the call of the payrol function and what the user see as output:
The output of the function

D) An Implementation Solution in Visual Basic

Public Class PayrollForm
   Private Sub HoursWorked_TextChanged() Handles HoursWorked.TextChanged
   If HoursWorked.Text > MaxNoOvertime.Text Then
      GrossPay.Text = Val(HourRate.Text) * (Val(MaxNoOvertime.Text) + _       Val(BonusRate.Text) * (Val(HoursWorked.Text) - Val(MaxNoOvertime.Text)))
      GrossPay.Text = Val(HourRate.Text) * Val(HoursWorked.Text)
   End If
   If Val(GrossPay.Text) <= Val(MaxNoDue.Text) Then
      NetPay.Text = Val(GrossPay.Text)
      NetPay.Text = Val(GrossPay.Text) - Val(Due.Text) * (Val(GrossPay.Text) - Val(MaxNoDue.Text))
   End If
   TaxVal.Text = Val(GrossPay.Text) - Val(NetPay.Text)
   End Sub
   Private Sub MaxNoOvertime_TextChanged() Handles MaxNoOvertime.TextChanged
   End Sub
   Private Sub MaxNoDue_TextChanged() Handles MaxNoDue.TextChanged
   End Sub
   Private Sub BonusRate_TextChanged() Handles BonusRate.TextChanged
   End Sub
   Private Sub Due_TextChanged() Handles Due.TextChanged
   End Sub
End Class
The event procedures are associated to the controls in the following form:
The Visual Basic Solution
The predefined values are given as default values for the corresponding controls. They will have the defined value at each new start. The user can change a value during a session and this will be taken in consideration for all subjacent computations. Normally the only two values a user must supply are those for "Hours Worked" and "Hourly Rate" fields. Any change, during a session, of a value - predefined or currently required - starts automatically the re-evaluation of the outputs. The solution exploits the event _TextChange.


Copyright © 2006-2008 Vasile Avram

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