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Cannabis seeds, plant nutrient and grow guides in Salt Lake City, Utah. Become Affiliate! Cannabis seeds, plant nutrient and grow guides in Salt Lake City, Utah. Become Affiliate! LED Lighting How to sprout cannabis seeds About Hydroponic Fertilizers Become Affiliate Cannabis seeds, plant nutrient and grow guides in Salt Lake City, Utah. Become Affiliate! Zkittlez Autoflowering Feminized Seeds White Widow Autoflowering Feminized Seeds Wedding Cake Autoflowering Feminized Seeds Northern Lights Autoflowering Feminized Seeds Moby Autoflowering Feminized Seeds LSD Autoflowering Feminized Seeds Salt Lake City (often shortened to Salt Lake and abbreviated as SLC) is the capital and most populous municipality of the U.S. state of Utah, as well as the seat of Salt Lake County, the most populous county in Utah. With an estimated population of 200,567 in 2019, the city is the core of the Salt Lake City metropolitan area, which has a population of 1,222,540 (2018 estimate). Salt Lake City is further situated within a larger metropolis known as the Salt Lake City–Ogden–Provo Combined Statistical Area, a corridor of contiguous urban and suburban development stretched along a 120-mile (190 km) segment of the Wasatch Front, comprising a population of 2,606,548 (as of 2018 estimates). It is one of only two major urban areas in the Great Basin. Salt Lake City is the world headquarters of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). The city was founded in 1847 by followers of the church, led by Brigham Young, who were seeking to escape persecution they had experienced while living farther east. The Mormon pioneers, as they would come to be known, entered an arid valley and immediately began building, planning, and extending an extensive irrigation network which could feed the population and foster future growth. Salt Lake City's street grid system is based on a standard compass grid plan, with the southeast corner of Temple Square (the area containing the Salt Lake Temple in downtown Salt Lake City) serving as the origin of the Salt Lake meridian. Due to its proximity to the Great Salt Lake, the city was named Great Salt Lake City. In 1868, the 17th Utah Territorial Legislature dropped the word "Great" from the city's name. Immigration of international members of the LDS Church, mining booms, and the construction of the first transcontinental railroad initially brought economic growth, and the city was nicknamed the Crossroads of the West. It was traversed by the Lincoln Highway, the first transcontinental highway, in 1913. Two major cross-country freeways, I-15 and I-80, now intersect in the city. The city also has a belt route, I-215. Salt Lake City has developed a strong outdoor recreation tourist industry based primarily on skiing and outdoor recreation. Salt Lake City hosted the 2002 Winter Olympics. It is the industrial banking center of the United States. It is also the location of several institutions of higher education including the state's flagship research school, the University of Utah. Before settlement by members of the LDS Church, the Shoshone, Ute, and Paiute had dwelt in the Salt Lake Valley for thousands of years. At the time of Salt Lake City's founding, the valley was within the territory of the Northwestern Shoshone. One local Shoshone tribe, the Western Goshute tribe, had names for the Jordan River, City Creek, and Red Butte Canyon (Pi'o-gw?t, So'ho-gw?t, and Mo'ni-wai-ni). The Goshutes (or, Gosiutes) also lived in the vicinity of Salt Lake and the valleys to the west. The land was treated by the United States as public domain; no aboriginal title by the Northwestern Shoshone was ever recognized by the United States or extinguished by treaty with the United States. The first American explorer in the Salt Lake area was probably Jim Bridger in 1825, although others had been in Utah earlier, some as far north as the nearby Utah Valley (the 1776 Dominguez-Escalante expedition were undoubtedly aware of Salt Lake Valley's existence). U.S. Army officer John C. Fr?mont surveyed the Great Salt Lake and the Salt Lake Valley in 1843 and 1845. The Donner Party, a group of ill-fated pioneers, had traveled through the Great Salt Lake Valley in August 1846. Salt Lake City c. 1880 by Carleton E. Watkins The settling of Salt Lake City dates to the arrival of the Latter-day Saints in July 1847. They had traveled beyond the boundaries of the United States into Mexican Territory seeking a secluded area to safely practice their religion away from the violence and the persecution they experienced in the United States. Upon arrival at the Salt Lake Valley, president of the church Brigham Young is recorded as stating, "This is the right place, drive on." Brigham Young is said to have seen the area in a vision before the wagon train's arrival. They found the broad valley empty of any human settlement. Part of Main Street, 1890 There was a Native American population in the valley, but an outbreak of measles during the winter of 1847 killed many. Four days after arriving in the Salt Lake Valley, Brigham Young designated the building site for the Salt Lake Temple. The Salt Lake Temple, constructed on the block later called Temple Square, took 40 years to complete. Construction started in 1853, and the temple was dedicated on April 6, 1893. The temple has become an icon for the city and serves as its centerpiece. The southeast corner of Temple Square is the point of reference for the Salt Lake meridian, and for all addresses in the Salt Lake Valley. The pioneers organized a state called State of Deseret, and petitioned for its recognition in 1849. The United States Congress rebuffed the settlers in 1850 and established the Utah Territory, vastly reducing its size, and designated Fillmore as its capital city. Great Salt Lake City replaced Fillmore as the territorial capital in 1856, and the name later was shortened to Salt Lake City. The city's population continued to swell with an influx of converts to the LDS Church and Gold Rush gold seekers, making it one of the most populous cities in the American Old West. The first group of settlers brought African slaves with them, making Utah the only place in the western United States to have African slavery. Three slaves, Green Flake, Hark Lay, and Oscar Crosby, came west with the first group of settlers in 1847. The settlers also began to purchase Indian slaves in the well-established Indian slave trade, as well as enslaving Indian prisoners of war. In 1850, 26 slaves were counted in Salt Lake County. In 1852, the territorial legislature passed the Act in Relation to Service and the Act for the relief of Indian Slaves and Prisoners formally legalizing slavery in the territory. Slavery was abolished in the territory during the Civil War. Explorer, ethnologist, and author Richard Francis Burton traveled by coach in the summer of 1860 to document life in Great Salt Lake City. He was granted unprecedented access during his three-week visit, including audiences with Brigham Young and other contemporaries of Joseph Smith. The records of his visit include sketches of early city buildings, a description of local geography and agriculture, commentary on its politics and social order, essays, speeches, and sermons from Young, Isaac Morley, George Washington Bradley and other leaders, and snippets of everyday life such as newspaper clippings and the menu from a high-society ball. Men lounging outside a saloon and a Chinese laundry, 1910 Disputes with the federal government ensued over the church's practice of polygamy. A climax occurred in 1857 when President James Buchanan declared the area in rebellion after Brigham Young refused to step down as governor, beginning the Utah War. A division of the United States Army, commanded by Albert Sidney Johnston, later a general in the army of the Confederate States of America, marched through the city and found it had been evacuated. They continued their march through the deserted city to vacant land at the southwest corner of the valley. There they set up Camp Floyd (40 miles (64 km) south of the city). Another military installation, Fort Douglas, was established in 1862 to maintain Union allegiance during the American Civil War. Many area leaders were incarcerated at the territorial prison in Sugar House in the 1880s for violation of anti-polygamy laws. The church began its eventual abandonment of polygamy in 1890, releasing "The Manifesto", which officially suggested members obey the law of the land (which was equivalent to forbidding new polygamous marriages inside the US and its territories, but not in church member settlements in Canada and Mexico). This paved the way for statehood in 1896, when Salt Lake City became the state capital. The First Transcontinental Railroad was completed in 1869 at Promontory Summit on the north side of the Great Salt Lake. A railroad was connected to the city from the Transcontinental Railroad in 1870, making travel less burdensome. Mass migration of different groups followed. Ethnic Chinese (who had laid most of the Central Pacific railway) established a flourishing Chinatown in Salt Lake City nicknamed "Plum Alley", which housed around 1,800 Chinese during the early 20th century. The Chinese businesses and residences were demolished in 1952 although a historical marker has been erected near the parking ramp which has replaced Plum Alley. Immigrants also found economic opportunities in the booming mining industries. Remnants of a once-thriving Japantown – namely a Buddhist temple and Japanese Christian chapel – remain in downtown Salt Lake City. European ethnic groups and East Coast missionary groups constructed St. Mark's Episcopal Cathedral in 1874, B'nai Israel Temple in 1890, the Roman Catholic Cathedral of the Madeleine in 1909 and the Greek Orthodox Holy Trinity Cathedral in 1923. This time period also saw the creation of Salt Lake City's now defunct red-light district that employed 300 courtesans at its height before being closed in 1911. Panorama of Temple Square taken in 1912 During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, an extensive streetcar system was constructed throughout the city, with the first streetcar running in 1872 and electrification of the system in 1889. As in the rest of the country, the automobile usurped the streetcar, and the last trolley was approved for conversion in 1941, yet ran until 1945, due to World War II. Trolley buses ran until 1946. Light rail transit returned to the city when UTA's TRAX opened in 1999. The S Line (formerly known as Sugar House Streetcar) opened for service in December 2013 on an old D&RGW right-of-way. The city's population began to stagnate during the 20th century as population growth shifted to suburban areas north and south of the city. Few of these areas were annexed to the city, while nearby towns incorporated and expanded. As a result, the population of the surrounding metropolitan area greatly outnumbers Salt Lake City. A major concern of recent government officials has been combating inner-city commercial decay. The city lost population from the 1960s through the 1980s, but experienced some recovery in the 1990s. Presently, the city has gained an estimated 5 percent of its population since the year 2000. The city has experienced significant demographic shifts in recent years. Hispanics now account for approximately 22% of residents and the city has a significant LGBT community. There is also a large Pacific Islander population (mainly Samoans and Tongans; they compose roughly 2% of the population of the Salt Lake Valley area. Salt Lake City was selected in 1995 to host the 2002 Winter Olympics. The games were plagued with controversy. A bid scandal surfaced in 1998 alleging bribes had been offered to secure the bid. During the games, other scandals erupted over contested judging scores and illegal drug use. Despite the controversies, the games were heralded as a financial success, being one of the few in recent history to turn a profit. In preparation major construction projects were initiated. Local freeways were expanded and repaired, and a light rail system was constructed. Olympic venues are now used for local, national, and international sporting events and Olympic athlete training. Tourism has increased since the Olympic games, but business did not pick up immediately following. Salt Lake City expressed interest in bidding for the 2022 Winter Olympics. However, Beijing was selected to host the 2022 Winter Olympics. Salt Lake City hosted the 16th Winter Deaflympic games in 2007, taking place in the venues in Salt Lake City and Park City, and Rotary International chose the city as the host site of their 2007 convention, which was the single largest gathering in Salt Lake City since the 2002 Winter Olympics. The U.S. Volleyball Association convention in 2005 drew 39,500 attendees. Geography Main article: Geography of Salt Lake City Astronaut photography of Salt Lake International Airport in west SLC, taken from the International Space Station (ISS). North is at bottom. Salt Lake City and adjacent suburbs, facing south Salt Lake City has an area of 110.4 square miles (286 km2) and an average elevation of 4,327 feet (1,319 m) above sea level. The lowest point within the boundaries of the city is 4,210 feet (1,280 m) near the Jordan River and the Great Salt Lake, and the highest is Grandview Peak, at 9,410 feet (2,868 m). The city is in the northeast corner of the Salt Lake Valley surrounded by the Great Salt Lake to the northwest, the steep Wasatch Range to the east, and Oquirrh Mountains to the west. Its encircling mountains contain several narrow canyons, including City Creek, Emigration, Millcreek, and Parley's which border the eastern city limits. The burgeoning population of Salt Lake City and the surrounding metropolitan area, combined with its geographical situation, has led to air quality becoming a concern. The Great Basin is subject to strong temperature inversions during the winter, which trap pollutants and decrease the air quality. The Utah Division of Air Quality monitors air quality and issues alerts for voluntary and mandatory actions when pollution exceeds federal safety standards. Protests have been held at the Utah State Capitol and Democratic lawmakers have introduced legislation in the Utah State Legislature to make public transportation free during January and July, when air quality is usually at its worst. The population of the Salt Lake City metropolitan area is projected to double by 2040, putting further pressure on the region's air quality. The Great Salt Lake is separated from Salt Lake City by extensive marshlands and mudflats. The metabolic activities of bacteria in the lake result in a phenomenon known as "lake stink", a scent reminiscent of foul poultry eggs, two to three times per year for a few hours. The Jordan River flows through the city and is a drainage of Utah Lake that empties into the Great Salt Lake. The highest mountaintop visible from Salt Lake City is Twin Peaks, which reaches 11,330 feet (3,450 m). Twin Peaks is southeast of Salt Lake City in the Wasatch Range. The Wasatch Fault is found along the western base of the Wasatch and is considered at high risk of producing an earthquake as large as 7.5. Catastrophic damage is predicted in the event of an earthquake with major damage resulting from the liquefaction of the clay- and sand-based soil and the possible permanent flooding of portions of the city by the Great Salt Lake. On March 18, 2020, a 5.7 magnitude earthquake, the largest in the Salt Lake City area in modern times, hit Magna, just southwest of Salt Lake City, causing some minor damage throughout the valley. The second-highest mountain range is the Oquirrhs, reaching a maximum height of 10,620 feet (3,237 m) at Flat Top. The east–west-oriented Traverse Mountains to the south extend to 6,000' (1830m), nearly connecting the Wasatch and Oquirrh Mountains. The mountains near Salt Lake City are easily visible from the city and have sharp vertical relief caused by ancient earthquakes, with a maximum difference of 7,099 feet (2164 m) being achieved with the rise of Twin Peaks from the Salt Lake Valley floor. The Salt Lake Valley floor is the ancient lakebed of Lake Bonneville, which existed at the end of the last Ice Age. Several Lake Bonneville shorelines can be distinctly seen as terraces on the foothills or benches of nearby mountains. A panoramic view of Salt Lake City, June 2009 Layout Plat of Salt Lake City, circa 1870s The city, as well as the county, is laid out on a grid plan. Most major streets run very north–south and east–west. The grid's origin is the southeast corner of Temple Square, the block containing the Salt Lake Temple; the north–south axis is Main Street; and the east–west axis is South Temple Street. Addresses are coordinates within the system (similar to latitude and longitude). Odd and even address numbering depends on the quadrant of the grid in which an address is located. The rule is: When traveling away from the grid center (Temple Square) or its axes (Main Street, South Temple Street), odd numbers will be on the left side of the street. The streets are relatively wide due to the direction of Brigham Young, who wanted them wide enough to permit an ox-pulled wagon team to turn around without "resorting to profanity". These wide streets and grid pattern are typical of other Mormon towns of the pioneer era throughout the West. Though the nomenclature may initially confuse new arrivals and visitors, most consider the grid system an aid to navigation. Some streets have names, such as State Street, which would otherwise be known as 100 East. Other streets have honorary names, such as the western portion of 300 South, named "Adam Galvez Street" (for a local Marine corporal killed in action) or others honoring Rosa Parks, Martin Luther King Jr., C?sar Ch?vez, Harvey Milk, and John Stockton. These honorary names appear only on street signs and cannot be used in postal addresses. The Salt Palace In the Avenues neighborhood, north–south streets are given letters of the alphabet, and east–west streets are numbered in 2.5-acre (1.0 ha) blocks, smaller than those in the rest of the city. Joseph Smith, founder of the Latter Day Saint movement, planned the layout in the "Plat of the City of Zion" (intended as a template for Mormon towns wherever they might be built). In his plan, the city was to be developed into 135 10-acre (4.0 ha) lots. However, the blocks in Salt Lake City became irregular during the late 19th century when the LDS Church lost authority over growth and before the adoption of zoning ordinances in the 1920s. The original 10-acre (4.0 ha) blocks allowed for large garden plots, and many were supplied with irrigation water from ditches that ran approximately where modern curbs and gutters would be laid. The original water supply was from City Creek. Subsequent development of water resources was from successively more southern streams flowing from the mountains east of the city. Some old irrigation ditches are still visible in the eastern suburbs, or are still marked on maps, years after they were gone. There are still some canals that deliver water as required by water rights. Many lots, in Salt Lake City and surrounding areas, have irrigation water rights attached to them. Local water systems, in particular Salt Lake City Public Utilities, have a tendency to acquire or trade for these water rights. These can then be traded for culinary water rights to water imported into the valley. At its peak, irrigation in the valley comprised over one hundred distinct canal systems, many originating at the Jordan Narrows at the south end of the valley. Water and water rights were important in the 19th and early 20th centuries. As heavy agricultural usage changed into a more urban and suburban pattern, canal water companies were gradually replaced by culinary water systems. Neighborhoods See also: List of Salt Lake City neighborhoods and Buildings and sites of Salt Lake City, Utah § Neighborhoods and areas Salt Lake City has many distinct neighborhoods. There is a general east–west socioeconomic divide. The eastern neighborhoods of the city, such as 9th & 9th, Yalecrest, and Sugar House tend to be more affluent. These districts are popular with professionals, families, and students due to their proximity to Downtown, the University of Utah, commercial precincts, and the Wasatch foothills. The western neighborhoods of the city, such as Poplar Grove and Glendale tend to be more working-class and ethnically diverse and are popular with immigrants and young people. This divide is a result of the railroad being built in the western half as well as panoramic views from inclined ground in the eastern portion. Housing is more economically diverse on the west side, which results in demographic differences. Interstate 15 was also built in a north–south line, further dividing east and west sides of the city. The west side of the city has historically been more culturally diverse. People of many faiths, races, and backgrounds live in the neighborhoods of Rose Park, Westpointe, Poplar Grove, and Glendale. It has always been considered a classic and diverse area, although recently its affordability has attracted many professionals and the more youthful generation. Sugar House Sugar House, in southeastern Salt Lake City, has a reputation as an older neighborhood with small shops in the center. Sugar House is an area which has been the focus of redevelopment efforts such as the UTA S-Line Streetcar. In late 2015 there were approximately 900 apartment units either recently built or under construction in the Sugar House area, with an additional 492 units proposed. Northeast of Downtown is The Avenues, a neighborhood outside of the regular grid system on smaller blocks. The area between 6th Avenue to South Temple Street is a Historical District that is nearly entirely residential, and contains many historical Victorian era homes. Recently the Avenues is becoming known for restaurants and shops opening in old retail space mixed within the community. The Avenues are situated on the upward-sloping bench in the foothills of the Wasatch Range, with the earlier built homes in the lower elevation. The Avenues, along with Federal Heights, just to the east and north of the University of Utah, and the Foothill area, south of the university, contain gated communities, large, multimillion-dollar houses, and panoramic views of the valley. Many consider this some of the most desirable real estate in the valley. In addition to larger centers like Sugar House and Downtown, Salt Lake City contains several smaller neighborhoods, each named after the closest major intersection. Two examples are the 9th and 9th (at the intersection of 900 East and 900 South Streets) and 15th & 15th (at the intersection of 1500 East and 1500 South Streets) neighborhoods. These areas are home to foot-traffic friendly, amenities-based businesses such as art galleries, clothing retail, salons, restaurants and coffee shops. During the summer of 2007, 9th and 9th saw sidewalk and street improvements as well as an art installation by Troy Pillow of Seattle, Washington inspired by the 9 Muses of Greek myth, thanks in part to a monetary grant from Salt Lake City. Many of the homes in the valley date from pre–World War II times, and only a select few areas, such as Federal Heights and the East Bench, as well as the far west side, including parts of Rose Park and Glendale, have seen new home construction since the 1970s. Climate Main article: Climate of Salt Lake City K?ppen climate types of Utah Under the K?ppen climate classification, Salt Lake City has a semi-arid continental climate (or Dsa), with cold snowy winters, hot and dry summers, and modest seasonal rainfall. The primary source of precipitation in Salt Lake City is massive storms that move in from the Pacific Ocean along the jet stream from October to May. In mid-to-late summer, when the jet stream retreats far to the north, precipitation mainly comes from afternoon thunderstorms caused by monsoon moisture moving up from the Gulf of California. Although rainfall can be heavy, these storms are usually scattered in coverage and rarely severe. However, downtown was hit by an F2 tornado on August 11, 1999, killing 1 person, injuring 60, and causing $170 million in damage. The remnants of tropical cyclones from the East Pacific can rarely reach the city during Fall. The remnants of Hurricane Olivia helped bring the record monthly precipitation of 7.04 inches (179 mm) in September 1982. 1983 was the wettest year on record, with 24.26 inches (616 mm), while 1979 was the driest, when 8.70 inches (221 mm) were recorded. Spring snowmelt from the surrounding mountains can cause localized stream flooding during late spring and early summer, the worst examples being in 1952 and especially 1983, when City Creek burst its banks, (Creek-bed scouring in Memory Grove, caused by high spring run-off in City Creek, filled much of the submerged waterway running westward under North Temple Street towards the Jordan River) forcing city engineers to convert several downtown streets into waterways. Salt Lake City, Utah Climate chart (explanation) J F M A M J J A S O N D 1.3 3722 1.3 4325 1.8 5434 2 6240 2 7248 1 8356 0.6 9365 0.7 9163 1.2 7953 1.5 6541 1.5 4931 1.4 3823 Average max. and min. temperatures in °F Precipitation totals in inches Metric conversion Snow falls on average from November 6 to April 18, producing a total average of 60 inches (152 cm), although measurable snow has fallen as early as September 17 and as late as May 28. The snowiest season was 1951–52, with 117.3 inches (298 cm), while the least snowy season was 16.6 inches (42 cm) in 1933–34. The snowiest month on record was January 1993, in which 50.3 inches (128 cm) were recorded. The nearby Great Salt Lake is a significant contributor to precipitation in the city. The lake effect can enhance rain from summer thunderstorms and produces lake-effect snow approximately 6 to 8 times per year, some of which can produce prodigious snowfall amounts. It is estimated about 10% of the annual precipitation in the city can be attributed to the lake effect. Salt Lake City features large variations in temperatures between seasons. During summer, there are an average of 56 days per year with temperatures of at least 90 °F (32.2 °C), 23 days of at least 95 °F (35 °C), and 5 days of 100 °F (37.8 °C). However, average daytime July humidity is only 22%. Winters are quite cold but rarely frigid. While an average of 127 days drop to or below freezing, and 26 days with high temperatures that fail to rise above freezing, the city only averages 2.3 days at or below 0 °F (?17.8 °C). The record high temperature is 107 °F (42 °C), which occurred first on July 26, 1960 and again on July 13, 2002, while the record low is ?30 °F (?34 °C), which occurred on February 9, 1933. During mid-winter, strong areas of high pressure often stagnate over the Great Basin, leading to strong temperature inversions. This causes air stagnation and thick smog in the valley from several days to weeks at a time and can result in the nation's worst air-pollution levels. This same effect will also occasionally play a role in the summer months, causing tropospheric ozone to peak in July & August, but in 2015 it started at the beginning of June. In 2016 Salt Lake's air quality was ranked 6th worst in the nation by the American Lung Association. It received an F grade for both ozone and particulate matter. Particulate pollution is considered especially dangerous, as the tiny pollutants can lodge deep in lung tissue. Both ozone and particulate pollution are associated with increased rates of strokes, heart attacks, respiratory disease, cancer and premature death. Outdoor air particulates have been associated with low and very low birth weight, premature birth, congenital defects, and death. Climate data for Salt Lake City International Airport (1981–2010 normals, extremes 1874–present) Parks The largest park in Salt Lake City is This Is the Place Heritage Park, a part of the Utah State Parks system. At 217.5 acres, This is the Place Heritage Park re-creates typical 19th century LDS pioneer life and contains over 50 restored or replicated historical buildings. This is the Place Monument also is located within the park, marking the end of the Mormon trail. Sugar House Park is the second largest park in Salt Lake City at 110 acres (45 ha) and is a part of the Salt Lake County park system. The park is known for its large, rolling hills surrounding a 4.5 acres (1.8 ha) pond with fountains. It was also the site of an annual Fourth of July fireworks display until 2018. Red Butte Garden and Arboretum, in the foothills of Salt Lake City, features many different exhibits and also hosts many musical concerts. It is operated by the University of Utah. City parks Salt Lake City has a system of 85 municipal parks. Some of the most notable, other than those mentioned above, are: Liberty Park (100 acres (40 ha)) is one of the city's oldest parks, having been established in 1881, and features a small lake with two islands and the Tracy Aviary. The park is home to a large number of birds, both wild and in the aviary. City Creek Park (4 acres (1.6 ha)) Pioneer Park (10 acres (4.0 ha)) Lindsey Gardens (15.25 acres (6.17 ha)) Gilgal Garden (3 acres (1.2 ha)) Jordan Park (33.5 acres (13.6 ha)) is home to the International Peace Gardens. Bonneville Shoreline Trail is a popular hiking and biking nature trail which spans 90 miles (140 km) through the foothills of the Wasatch Front. Demographics Historical population Census Pop. %± 1850 6,157 — 1860 8,236 33.8% 1870 12,854 56.1% 1880 20,768 61.6% 1890 44,843 115.9% 1900 53,531 19.4% 1910 92,777 73.3% 1920 116,110 25.1% 1930 140,267 20.8% 1940 149,934 6.9% 1950 182,121 21.5% 1960 189,454 4.0% 1970 175,885 ?7.2% 1980 163,034 ?7.3% 1990 159,936 ?1.9% 2000 181,743 13.6% 2010 186,440 2.6% Est. 2019 200,567 7.6% Source: U.S. Decennial Census 2018 Estimate Racial composition 2018 (est.) 1990 1950 White 73.1% 75.1% 87.0% 96.8% 98.3% —Non-Hispanic 65.4% 65.7% 82.6% 90.6% n/a Black or African American 2.3% 2.6% 1.7% 1.2% 0.6% Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 21.6% 22.3% 9.7% 6.4% n/a Asian (includes Pacific Islander up to 1990) 5.4% 4.4% 4.7% 1.1% 1.0% Pacific Islander 1.5% 2.0% n/a n/a n/a Native American and Alaska Native 1.5% 1.2% n/a n/a n/a Map of racial distribution in Salt Lake City, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian, Hispanic or Other (yellow) US Census Bureau estimates for 2018 listed 200,591 people in Salt Lake City. The racial makeup of the county was 65.4% non-Hispanic White, 2.3% Black, 1.5% Native American, 5.4% Asian, 1.5% Pacific Islander, and 3.4% from two or more races. 21.6% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. At the 2010 census, Salt Lake City's population was 75.1% White, 2.6% African American, 1.2% American Indian and Alaska Native, 4.4% Asian, 2.0% Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander, 10.7% from other races and 3.7% of mixed descent. 22.3% of the total population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. The city's population has historically been predominantly white. Between 1860 and 1950 whites represented about 99% of the city's population but this somewhat changed in the decades that followed. As of 2010, 37.0% of the population had a bachelor's degree or higher. 18.5% of the population was foreign born and another 1.1% was born in Puerto Rico, U.S. insular territories, or born abroad to American parent(s). 27.0% spoke a language other than English at home. There were 186,440 people (up from 181,743 in 2000), 75,177 households, and 57,543 families in the city. This amounts to 6.75% of Utah's population, 18.11% of Salt Lake County's population, and 16.58% of the new Salt Lake metropolitan population. The area within the city limits covers 14.2% of Salt Lake County. Salt Lake City was more densely populated than the surrounding metro area with a population density of 1,688.77/sqmi (1,049.36/km?). There were 80,724 housing units at an average density of 731.2/sqmi (454.35/km?). The Salt Lake City-Ogden metropolitan area, which included Salt Lake, Davis, and Weber counties, had a population of 1,333,914 in 2000, a 24.4% increase over the 1990 figure of 1,072,227. Since the 2000 Census, the Census Bureau has added Summit and Tooele counties to the Salt Lake City metropolitan area, but removed Davis and Weber counties and designated them as the separate Ogden-Clearfield metropolitan area. The Salt Lake City-Ogden-Clearfield combined statistical area, together with the Provo-Orem metropolitan area, which lies to the south, had a combined population of 2,094,035 as of July 1, 2008. There were 75,177 households, out of which 27.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.1% were married couples living together, 10.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 44.3% were other types of households. Of the 75,177 households, 3,904 were reported to be unmarried partner households: 3,047 heterosexual, 458 same-sex male, and 399 same-sex female. 33.2% of all households were made up of individuals, and 9.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48, and the average family size was 3.24. The city's age distribution (as of 2000): 23.6% under 18 15.2% from 18 to 24 33.4% from 25 to 44 16.7% from 45 to 64 11.0% 65 or older The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females, there were 102.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $36,944, and the median income for a family was $45,140. Males had a median income of $31,511 versus $26,403 for females. The per capita income for the city was $20,752. 15.3% of the population and 10.4% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 18.7% of those under the age of 18 and 8.5% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. Large family sizes and low housing vacancy rates, which have inflated housing costs along the Wasatch Front, have led to one out of every six residents living below the poverty line. According to the Census Bureau's American Community Survey of 2017, the highest disparity in income in Utah is in Salt Lake City. Salt Lake City's GINI Index score was 0.4929, compared with the state's overall score of 0.423. The west-side areas of Salt Lake have the lowest-incomes while areas like the upper Avenues, have much higher incomes. Other Utah cities with relatively high scores include Provo, 0.4734; and Ogden, 0.4632. Fewer than 50% of Salt Lake City's residents are members of the LDS Church. This is a much lower proportion than in Utah's more rural municipalities; altogether, LDS members make up about 62% of Utah's population. The Rose Park and Glendale sections are predominantly Spanish-speaking with Hispanic and Latino Americans accounting for 60% of public school-children. The Centro Civico Mexicano acts as a community gathering point for the Wasatch Front's estimated 300,000 Latinos, Mexican President Vicente Fox began his 2006 US tour in Salt Lake City. Salt Lake City is home to a Bosnian American community of more than 8,000, most of whom arrived during the Bosnian War in the 1990s. The large Pacific Islander population, mainly Samoan and Tongan, is also centered in the Rose Park, Glendale, and Poplar Grove sectors. Most of Salt Lake City's ethnic Pacific Islanders are members of the LDS Church, though various Samoan and Tongan-speaking congregations are situated throughout the Salt Lake area including Samoan Congregational, Tongan Wesleyan Methodist, and Roman Catholic. Just outside Salt Lake City limits, newer immigrant communities include Nepalis, and refugees of Karen origin from Myanmar (former Burma). Salt Lake City also has the third largest Sri Lankan community in the United States. Salt Lake City has been considered one of the top 51 "gay-friendly places to live" in the U.S. The city is home to a large, business savvy, organized, and politically supported gay community. Leaders of the Episcopal Church's Diocese of Utah, as well as leaders of Utah's largest Jewish congregation, the Salt Lake Kol Ami, along with three elected representatives of the city identify themselves as gay. These developments have attracted controversy from socially conservative officials representing other regions of the state. A 2006 study by UCLA estimated approximately 7.6% of the city's population, or almost 14,000 people, were openly gay or bisexual, compared to just 3.7%, or just over 60,000 people, for the metropolitan area as a whole. In 2007, Salt Lake City was ranked by Forbes as the most vain city in America, based on the number of plastic surgeons per 100,000 and their spending habits on cosmetics, which exceed cities of similar size. However, this likely reflects a concentration of plastic surgeons within the city limits but whose client base includes the entire metropolitan area. Forbes also found the city to be the 8th most stressful. In contrast to the 2007 ranking by Forbes, a 2010 study conducted by Portfolio.com and bizjournals concluded Salt Lake City was the least stressful city in the United States. In 2014, CNN deemed Salt Lake City to be the least stressed-out city in the United States, citing the low cost of living and abundance of jobs. A 2008 study by the magazines Men's Health and Women's Health found Salt Lake City to be the healthiest city for women by looking at 38 different factors, including cancer rates, air quality, and the number of gym memberships. Economy Main article: Economy of Salt Lake City Recreational tourism in the Wasatch Mountains is a major source of employment. Zions Bancorporation headquarters in Salt Lake City Ambox current red Asia Australia.svg This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (July 2014) Historically known as the "Crossroads of the West" for its railroads, when nearby steel, mining and railroad operations provided a strong source of income with Silver King Coalition Mines, Geneva Steel, Bingham Canyon Mine, and oil refineries, Salt Lake City's modern economy is service-oriented. Today the city's major sectors are government, trade, transportation, utilities, and professional and business services. The daytime population of Salt Lake City proper swells to over 315,000 people, not including tourists or students. Local, state, and federal governments have a large presence in the city, and trade, transportation, and utilities provide significant employment, with the major employer being the Delta hub at Salt Lake City International Airport. Equally significant are the professional and business services, while health services and health educational services are significant areas of employment, including the largest health care provider in the Intermountain West, Intermountain Healthcare. Other major employers include the University of Utah, Sinclair Oil Corporation, and the LDS Church. Besides its central offices, the LDS Church owns and operates a for-profit division, Deseret Management Corporation and its subsidiaries, which are headquartered in the city. Salt Lake City is home to two Fortune 1000 companies, Zions Bancorporation and Questar Corporation. Other notable firms headquartered in the city include AlphaGraphics, Sinclair Oil Corporation, Smith's Food and Drug (owned by national grocer Kroger), MonaVie, Myriad Genetics, Creminelli Fine Meats and Vehix.com. Notable firms based in nearby cities within the metropolitan area include Arctic Circle Restaurants, FranklinCovey, and Overstock.com. Metropolitan Salt Lake was also once the headquarters of American Stores, the Skaggs Companies, and ZCMI, one of the first department stores; it is now owned by Macy's, Inc. Former ZCMI stores now operate under the Macy's label. High-tech firms with a large presence in the suburbs include Adobe, ColcaSac, eBay, Unisys, Siebel, Micron, L-3 Communications, Telarus, and 3M. Goldman Sachs has its second-largest presence in Salt Lake City. Other economic activities include tourism, conventions, and major suburban call centers. Tourism has increased since the 2002 Olympic Winter Games, and many hotels and restaurants were built for the events. The convention industry has expanded since construction of the Salt Palace convention center in the late 1990s, which hosts trade shows and conventions, including the Novell BrainShare conference. Law and government Seat of Salt Lake City government c. 1894 The Salt Lake City and County Building has been the seat of city government since 1894. It also served as Utah's first statehouse from 1896 until the current Utah State Capitol was dedicated on October 9, 1916. Since 1979, Salt Lake City has had a non-partisan mayor-council form of government. The mayor and the seven councillors are elected to staggered four-year terms. Council seats are defined by geographic population boundaries. Each councilor represents approximately 26,000 citizens. Officials are not subject to term limits. Municipal elections throughout Utah are non-partisan. The most recent election was held on November 5, 2019. Councilwoman Erin Mendenhall was elected mayor, Daniel E. Dugan won against incumbent Charlie Luke, while Andrew Johnston and Ana Valdemoros retained their seats on the council. Darin Mano was appointed by the council to serve the rest of Mendenhall's term. Members of the city council also serve as the governing board of the city's Redevelopment Agency. Elected officials of Salt Lake City as of 2020 Official Position Assumed office Term ends Erin Mendenhall (D) Mayor 2020 2024 City Council James Rogers District 1 2014 2022 Andrew Johnston, Vice Chair District 2 2016 2024 Chris Wharton, Chair District 3 2018 2022 Ana Valdemoros District 4 2019 2024 Darin Mano District 5 2020 2022 Daniel E. Dugan District 6 2020 2024 Amy Fowler District 7 2018 2022 Elections are held in odd-numbered years. Candidates take office in January of the following year. The separation of church and state was the most heated topic in the days of the Liberal Party and People's Party of Utah, when many candidates were also would-be LDS Church bishops. This tension is still reflected today with the Bridging the Religious Divide campaign. This campaign was initiated when some city residents complained the Utah political establishment was unfair in its dealings with non-LDS residents by giving the LDS Church preferential treatment, while LDS residents perceived a growing anti-Mormon bias in city politics. The city's political demographics are considerably more liberal than the rest of Utah. While Utah as a whole is a strongly conservative and Republican state, Salt Lake City is considered a Democratic bastion. Since 1976, all of the city's mayors have been Democrats. The city is home to several non-governmental think-tanks and advocacy groups such as the conservative Sutherland Institute, the progressive Alliance for a Better Utah, the gay-rights group Equality Utah, and the quality-growth advocates Envision Utah. Salt Lake hosted many foreign dignitaries during the 2002 Winter Olympics, and in 2006 the president of Mexico began his U.S. tour in the city and Israel's ambassador to the United States opened a cultural center. President George W. Bush visited in 2005 and again in 2006 for national veterans' conventions; both visits were protested by then-Mayor Rocky Anderson. Other political leaders such as Howard Dean and Harry Reid gave speeches in the city in 2005. In July 2013, a new Public Safety Building housing police, fire, and emergency dispatch employees opened. It was billed as the largest net zero energy building in the nation at opening, and is expected to be certified LEED Platinum. The Salt Lake City Fire Department operates out of 14 fire stations. See also: List of mayors of Salt Lake City See also: Joe_Hill § Trial Education Main articles: Education in Salt Lake City and Salt Lake County—Education Salt Lake City Public Library. The American Library Association called it the best in the US in 2006. The University of Utah Medical Center In 1847 LDS pioneer Jane Dillworth held the first classes in her tent for the children of the first LDS families. In the last part of the 19th century, there was much controversy over how children in the area should be educated. LDS and non-LDS could not agree on the level of religious influence in schools. Today, many LDS youths in grades 9 through 12 attend some form of religious instruction in addition to the public-school sessions, referred to as seminary. Students are released from public schools at various times of the day to attend seminary. LDS seminaries are usually on church-owned property adjacent to the public school and within walking distance. Because of high birth rates and large classrooms, Utah spends less per student than any other state, yet also spends more per capita (of total state population) than any state with the exception of Alaska. Money is always a challenge, and many businesses donate to support schools. Several districts have set up foundations to raise money. Recently, money was approved for the reconstruction of more than half of the elementary schools and one of the middle schools in the Salt Lake City School District, which serves most of the area within the city limits. There are twenty-three K-6 elementary schools, five 7–8 middle schools, three 9–12 high schools (Highland, East, and West, with the former South High being converted to the South City campus of the Salt Lake Community College), and an alternative high school (Horizonte) within the school district. In addition, Highland has recently been selected as the site for the charter school Salt Lake School for the Performing Arts (SPA). Many Catholic schools are in the city, including Judge Memorial Catholic High School. Rowland Hall-St. Mark's School, established in 1867 by Episcopal Bishop Daniel Tuttle, is the area's premier independent school. The Salt Lake City Public Library system consists of the main library downtown, and five branches in various neighborhoods. The main library, designed by renowned architect Moshe Safdie, opened in 2003. In 2006, the Salt Lake City Public Library was named "Library of the Year" by the American Library Association. Postsecondary educational options in Salt Lake City include the University of Utah, Westminster College, Salt Lake Community College, Stevens-Henager College, Eagle Gate College, The Art Institute of Salt Lake City, Violin Making School of America (now named Peter Prier & Sons Violins), and LDS Business College. Utah State University, Neumont College of Computer Science and Brigham Young University also operate education centers in the city. There are also many trade and technical schools such as Healing Mountain Massage School and the Utah College of Massage Therapy. The University of Utah is noted for its research and medical programs. It was one of the original four universities to be connected to ARPANET, the predecessor to the Internet, in 1969, and was the site of the first artificial heart transplant in 1982. Culture Museums and the arts The Denver and Rio Grande Western Depot now serves as home to the Utah Department of Heritage and Arts and the Rio Gallery. Salt Lake City is home to several museums. Near Temple Square is the Church History Museum. Operated by the LDS Church, the museum contains collections of artifacts, documents, art, photographs, tools, clothing and furniture from the history of the LDS Church, which spans nearly two centuries. West of Temple Square, at The Gateway, is the Clark Planetarium, which houses an IMAX theater, and Discovery Gateway, a children's museum. The University of Utah campus is home to the Utah Museum of Fine Arts as well as the Natural History Museum of Utah. Other museums in the area include the Utah State Historical Society, Daughters of Utah Pioneers Memorial Museum, Fort Douglas Military Museum, the Social Hall Heritage Museum, and The Leonardo, a new art, science and technology museum housed in the previous Salt Lake City Library building. Salt Lake City is home to several classic movie theaters including the Tower Theatre and the Broadway Theater, both of which host the Salt Lake Film Society members and shows. The Utah Film Center hosts free film screenings, many with post film Q and A's with filmmakers or subject experts every Tuesday night at the Salt Lake Public Library and monthly at the Rose Wagner Theater. On December 5, 2007, the Salt Lake Chamber and Downtown Alliance announced a two-block section of downtown south of the planned City Creek Center is planned to become a new arts hub. This will include renovations to two theaters in the area and a new theater with a seating capacity of 2,400 and increased space for galleries and artists. The opening of the new facilities was anticipated to coincide with the opening of the City Creek Center in 2011, but they have yet to be completed. The $81.5 million theater site was announced, and attempts to secure funding began. The theater plans have come under criticism, however, especially from nearby smaller theaters which host Off-Broadway tours and claim such a theater cannot be supported and will hurt their business. Performing arts Abravanel Hall Salt Lake City provides venues for both professional and amateur theatre. The city attracts traveling Broadway and Off-Broadway performances in the historic Capitol Theatre. Local professional acting companies include the Pioneer Theatre Company, Salt Lake Acting Company, and Plan-B Theatre Company, which is the only theatre company in Utah fully devoted to developing new plays by Utah playwrights. The Off-Broadway Theatre, in Salt Lake's historic Clift Building, features comedy plays and Utah's longest-running improv comedy troupe, Laughing Stock. Salt Lake City is home to The Tabernacle Choir at Temple Square, founded in 1847 as the Mormon Tabernacle Choir. The choir's weekly program, called Music and the Spoken Word, is the world's longest-running continuous network broadcast. Salt Lake City is the home to the Utah Symphony Orchestra, which was founded in 1940 and grew to become a major US orchestra during the tenure of its former music director, Maurice Abravanel, who led the orchestra from 1947 through 1979. Its current music director is Thierry Fischer. The orchestra's original home was the Salt Lake Tabernacle, but since 1979 has performed at Abravanel Hall in the western downtown area. In 2002, Utah Symphony merged with Utah Opera, which was founded in 1978 by Glade Peterson and under current Artistic Director Christopher McBeth annually presents four opera productions in the Capitol Theatre. Salt Lake City area is home to the renowned children's choir from The Madeleine Choir School, and the Salt Lake Children's Choir (established in 1979). The University of Utah is home to two highly ranked dance departments, the Ballet Department and the Department of Modern Dance. Professional dance companies in Salt Lake City include Ballet West, Ririe-Woodbury Dance Company (which celebrated its 45th anniversary season in 2008/2009) and Repertory Dance Theatre. The Rose Wagner Performing Arts Center is host to both RWDC and RDT. Music The city has an eclectic music scene that includes hip hop, blues, rock and roll, punk, deathcore, horrorcore and indie groups. Popular groups or persons who started in the Wasatch Front area, or were raised in and influenced by it, include Iceburn, Eagle Twin, The Almost, The Brobecks, Meg and Dia, Royal Bliss, Shedaisy, The Summer Obsession, Theater of Ice, The Used and Chelsea Grin. Salt Lake has an underground metal scene with bands such as Gaza and Bird Eater. During the summer, Salt Lake City hosts the Twilight Concert series, a low-cost summer concert series. The series has been a part of the Salt Lake City music scene since the late 1980s. In 2010, crowds peaked at 40,000 attendees in downtown's Pioneer Park. Festivals Salt Lake City has a thriving festival culture. Various festivals happen throughout the year, celebrating the diversity of the valley's communities. From culture, food, religion and spirituality, to dance, music, spoken word, and film, almost any type of festival can be found. Many of the festivals have been ongoing for decades. The rainbow flag at the conclusion of the 2014 Utah Pride parade. The Utah Pride Festival is an annual LGBTQ festival, held in June. Started in 1983, it has grown to a three-day festival with attendance exceeding 50,000. It is sponsored by the Utah Pride Center. It is the second largest festival behind Days of '47 and is one of the nation's largest festivals. The festival includes hundreds of vendors, food, music stars, a 5k run, a dyke and trans march[clarification needed], and an interfaith service by the Utah Pride Interfaith Coalition. The Utah Arts Festival has been held annually since 1977 with an average attendance of 80,000. About 130 booths are available for visual artists, and five performance venues for musicians. The Dark Arts Festival is an annual 3-day festival dedicated to the goth and industrial subcultures. The festival started in 1993, and is hosted at the local goth club Area 51. The festival contracts bands to play during the event. 2015's lineup included Tragic Black, The Gothsicles, Adrian H & the Wounds, and Hocico. Hocico performing at the 2015 Dark Arts Festival The Utah Arts Alliance hosts an annual Urban Arts Festival, usually drawing over 20,000, and featuring artists displaying and selling paintings, sculpture, photography, and jewelry. Live music is provided, mixing rock, hip hop, R&B, funk, and jazz, and workshops for interests such as skateboarding and gardening take place. The festival also hosts the Voice of the City film festival which allows local filmmakers to show their version of Salt Lake. The Jewish Arts Festival, hosted by the IJ and Jeann? Wagner JCC of Salt Lake City, showcases Jewish culture through workshops, theater, food, film, art, and contemporary music from the local and global Jewish communities. The Sugar House neighborhood holds an annual arts festival on July 4, with local artists, performances, music, food, and vendors. The festival coincides with the fireworks show at Sugar House Park in the evening. Salt Lake City also hosts portions of the Sundance Film Festival. The festival, which is held each year, brings many cultural icons, movie stars, celebrities, and thousands of film buffs to see the largest independent film festival in the United States. The headquarters of the event is in nearby Park City. There are several other annual festivals, including FilmQuest, Salty Horror Con & Film, Damn These Heels, and the Voice of the City. FilmQuest began in 2014 and features selected genres such as fantasy and science fiction. Salty Horror, which began in 2010, is a competition-based horror film festival. The Utah Film Center presents two annual film festivals Damn These Heels, which began in 1994 focuses on independent, documentary, and foreign feature-length films surrounding LGBTQ issues, ideas, and art. The second festival of the Utah Film center is the Tumbleweeds film festival for kids. This festival began in 2010, allows families to experience international films and media workshops. Tumbleweeds works to increasing kids awareness of different cultures, encourages independent voices, nurtures media making skills and strengthens critical review. Voice of the City film festival is part of the Urban Arts Festival and allows local filmmakers to show their version of Salt Lake. The 2015 Great Salt Lake Fringe Festival was the first performance festival in Salt Lake City. The 4-day festival included various performances involving music, dance, theatre, spoken word, circus arts, magic, and puppetry. The Living Traditions Festival is a 3-day multicultural arts festival hosted by the Salt Lake City Arts Council, started in 1985. The festival celebrates traditional dance, music, crafts and food from the various contemporary ethnic communities of Salt Lake City. Earth Jam is an annual festival celebrated in Salt Lake's Liberty Park to celebrate Earth Day through music. The free festival focuses on music, and hosts speakers, vendors, food, performing art, a Goddess pageant, and children's garden. The Live Green SLC! Festival aims to showcase sustainable products, ideas, and solutions from renewable technologies for the everyday household. The festival promotes education, sustainability, and accessibility to green and organic products and services. Craft Lake City DIY (Do-It-Yourself) festival is an artisan festival that promotes the use of science and technology to help local artists produce their crafts such as silk screens, jewelry, and other mediums. The festival promotes education through workshops, galleries, and demonstrations which includes various vendors and food. The 9th and 9th Street Festival is an annual neighborhood festival celebration of art, music, and crafts, held at 900 East/900 South Streets. Carmelite Festival 2015 live band at the Carmelite Monastery of Salt Lake City The Catholic Nuns of Carmelite Monastery hold an annual fair each autumn in Holladay, a suburb of Salt Lake City. The festival includes music, food, a live auction, Golf for the Nuns tournament, a prize giveaway, and a 5k Run for the Nuns marathon. The Sri Sri Ganesh Hindu Temple of Utah, in Salt Lake City, has an annual Ganesh Festival called Ganesh Chathurthi. The 10-day festival is devoted to rites of worship of the Hindu God Ganesh. In 2014 the festival was hosted at the Krishna Temple of Salt Lake since the Ganesh temple's exterior was under construction, which made the inner temple inaccessible. India Fest is hosted by the Krishna Temples of Salt Lake City and Spanish Fork, Utah. The festival includes food, dances, drama and a pageant of the Ramayana. Since 2011 the Krishna Temple of Salt Lake City has held an annual Festival of Colors, similar to the famous festival at the Krishna Temple in Spanish Fork. The Great Salt Lake City Yoga Festival was in its fifth year (as of 2015). 2015 saw the first Downtown Yoga festival in Salt Lake City. Both festivals are intended to inspire yogis in the community by teaching about yoga, healthy living, raw food, and traditional yoga music. Harts Hearth Clan of Tooele, Utah performing the closing Norse rite, Salt Lake City Pagan Pride Day 2015 The local Pagan community has celebrated an annual Salt Lake City Pagan Pride Day since 2001. The festival features rituals, workshops, dancers, bards, vendors, and requires only a can of food donation for admission. Cosplayers (left) receive steampunk tarot readings at the 2015 Salt City Steamfest Members of the steampunk subculture have an annual two-day festival, Steamfest. It hosts vendors, panels, and cosplayers dressed in the fashion of various punk cultures, mostly around steam, deco, and diesel punk. Rose Park hosts an annual spring festival, to display the community's diversity. It includes dancers, music, a 5k run, silent auction and food. The 2014 Greek Festival The Greek Festival, held at the downtown Greek Orthodox Church cathedral during the weekend after Labor Day, celebrates Utah's Greek heritage. The 3-day event includes Greek music, dance groups, cathedral tours, booths and a large buffet. Attendance ranges from 35,000 to 50,000. It celebrated its 40th anniversary in 2015. Two Italian-themed annual fests are held in Salt Lake City. The Italian cultural street festival Ferragosto (in August) celebrates Italian food and culture from Italian communities in Salt Lake City. Festa Italian is a 2-day festival in September that highlights regions of Italy with music, food, and entertainment. The proceeds go to local charities. Other cultural festivals in Salt Lake City include the Peruvian Festival, the Utah Brazilian Festival, the Polynesian Cultural Festival, the Nihon Matsuri Japanese Festival, and the Buddhist Obon Japanese Festival. Conventions Salt Lake City is host to a number of conventions that come to the Crossroads of the West. With several large venues, including the Salt Palace and Vivint Smart Home Arena in downtown, Salt Lake is capable of accommodating conventions upwards of 100,000 people. 2015 Comic Con at Salt Palace Convention Center Salt Lake Comic Con, which started in 2013, had over 100,000 attendance within its first few years. Because of this, Salt Lake Comic Con started having a second event, FanX (Fan Experience) to give those who were not able to come to the fall Comic Con, a spring-time opportunity. The convention broke inaugural records in 2013, hosting the largest crowd of any inaugural comic convention. The second event, FanX of 2014, and the fall event of 2014 both broke attendance records for the event, surpassing 120,000 people. The convention was sued by San Diego Comic Con, but won the right to use the trademark of comic con in its name. In 2014, Stan Lee called the Salt Lake Comic Con "the greatest comic con in the world". On September 25, 2015, the Con broke the world record for the most costumed comic book cosplay characters in one location. At 1784 people, this beat the previous record. Crystal Mountain Pony Con, an annual My Little Pony convention, features cosplayers, vendors, and panels. 2015 saw more than 800 bronies in attendance. Salt Lake hosts an annual International Tattoo Convention in the spring, featuring mostly nationally and internationally noted tattoo artists. Fantasy Con hosted its first convention, the first of its kind, in Salt Lake City in 2014. After a successful run, the convention reorganized to better serve the needs of the fantasy community. Intended to be annual, it did not host one for 2015, and further plans have not been announced. Salt Lake City saw its first Gaming Convention in 2015. It included contests, cosplay, panels, and focused on console, computer, card, and tabletop gaming. Events The Olympic flame burns at Rice-Eccles Stadium. Salt Lake City hosted the 2002 Winter Olympics. Although the LDS church holds a large influence, the city is culturally and religiously diverse and the site of many cultural activities. A major state holiday is Pioneer Day, July 24, the anniversary of the Mormon pioneers' entry into the Salt Lake Valley. It is celebrated with a week's worth of activities, including a children parade, a horse parade, the featured Days of '47 Parade (one of the nation's largest parades), a rodeo, and a fireworks show at Liberty Park. Fireworks can be legally sold and set off around July 24. First Night on New Year's Eve, a celebration emphasizing family-friendly entertainment and activities held at Rice-Eccles Stadium at the University of Utah, culminates with a fireworks display at midnight. Beginning in 2004, Salt Lake City has been the host of the international Salt Lake City Marathon. In 2006, Real Madrid and many of the nation's best cyclist had engagements. Salt Lake City has begun to host its own events in the last few years, most notably the Friday Night Flicks, free movies in the city's parks, and the Mayor's health and fitness awareness program, Salt Lake City Gets Fit. Salt Lake City hosted the 2002 Winter Olympics. At that time, Salt Lake City was the most populated area to hold a Winter Olympic Games. The event put Salt Lake City in the international spotlight and is regarded by many as one of the most successful Winter Olympics ever. In February 2002, Torino, Italy was granted an Olympic Sister City relationship with Salt Lake City, which became a Friendship City relationship in October 2003. On January 13, 2007 an agreement was signed, where Salt Lake City and Torino officially became Olympic Sister Cities. On the third Friday of every month, the Salt Lake Gallery Stroll presents a free evening of visual art; many galleries and other art-related businesses stay open late, allowing enthusiasts to tour various exhibits after hours. Sidewalk artists, street performers and musicians also sometimes participate in these monthly events. Media KUTV News Studio in the Wells Fargo Center building in Salt Lake City KSL TV, KSL Radio, and the Deseret News are located in the Triad Center in Salt Lake City. See also: Media in Salt Lake City and Salt Lake City in film Salt Lake City has many diverse media outlets. Most of the major television and radio stations are based in or near the city. The Salt Lake City metropolitan area is ranked as the 31st largest radio and 33rd largest television market in the United States. Print media include two major daily newspapers, The Salt Lake Tribune and the Deseret News (previously the Deseret Morning News). Other more specialized publications include Now Salt Lake, Salt Lake City Weekly (a weekly independent publication), Nuestro Mundo of the Spanish-speaking community, QSaltLake and The Pillar for the LGBT community. Other Spanish-language newspapers include El Estandar, Amigo Hispano (online only), and El Observador de Utah, which offers free residential delivery. There are a number of local magazines, such as Wasatch Journal (a quarterly magazine covering Utah's arts, culture, and outdoors), Utah Homes & Garden, Salt Lake Magazine (a bimonthly lifestyle magazine), CATALYST Magazine (a monthly environmental, health, arts and politics magazine), SLUG Magazine, an alternative underground music magazine. Utah Stories is a magazine that covers local issues, primarily focused on the Salt Lake Valley. KTVX 4 signed on the air as Utah's first television station in 1947 under the experimental callsign W6SIX, becoming the Mountain Time Zone's oldest and third-oldest west of the Mississippi. It is Salt Lake City's current ABC affiliate. KSL-TV 5, the local NBC affiliate, has downtown studios at "Broadcast House" in the Triad Center office complex. KSL is operated by Deseret Media Companies, a company owned by the LDS Church. KUTV 2 is Salt Lake City's CBS affiliate. KSTU 13 is the area's Fox affiliate. KUCW 30 is the CW affiliate and part of a duopoly with KTVX. KJZZ-TV 14 is an independent station owned by Sinclair Broadcast Group, and is part of a triopoly with KUTV and St. George-licensed MyNetworkTV affiliate KMYU 12. Because television and radio stations serve a larger area (usually the entire state of Utah, as well as parts of western Wyoming, southern Idaho, parts of Montana, and eastern Nevada), ratings returns tend to be higher than those in similar-sized cities. Some Salt Lake radio stations are carried on broadcast translator networks throughout the state. Salt Lake City has become a case of market saturation on the FM dial; one cannot go through more than about two frequencies on an FM radio tuner before encountering another broadcasting station. Several companies, most notably Millcreek Broadcasting and Simmons Media, have constructed broadcast towers on Humpy Peak in the Uinta Mountains to the east. These towers allow frequencies allocated to nearby mountain communities to be boosted by smaller, low-powered FM transmitters along the Wasatch Front. Main sights Main article: Buildings and sites of Salt Lake City Salt Lake Temple Salt Lake City is the headquarters of the LDS Church and has many LDS-related sites open to visitors. The most popular is Temple Square, which includes the Salt Lake Temple (not open to the general public) and visitor centers open to the public, free of charge. Temple Square includes the historic Salt Lake Tabernacle, home of the Mormon Tabernacle Choir, now called The Tabernacle Choir at Temple Square. The LDS Conference Center is north of Temple Square. The Family History Library, the world's largest genealogical library, is west of Temple Square. It is run by the LDS Church and is open to the public and free of charge. The Eagle Gate Monument is east of Temple Square. In 2004, the Salt Lake City main library received an Institute Honor Award for Architecture by the American Institute of Architects and features a distinctive architectural style. The building's roof serves as a viewpoint for the Salt Lake Valley. The Utah State Capitol Building offers marble floors and a dome similar to the building that houses the US Congress. Other notable historical buildings include the Thomas Kearns Mansion (now the Governor's Mansion), City and County Building (built 1894), the Kearns Building on Main Street, St. Mark's Episcopal Cathedral (built 1874), and the Roman Catholic Cathedral of the Madeleine (built 1909). Utah State Capitol The Olympic Cauldron Park at Rice-Eccles Stadium features the Olympic Cauldron from the games, a visitor's center, and the Hoberman Arch. The Olympic Legacy Plaza, at The Gateway, features a dancing fountain set to music and the names of 30,000 Olympic volunteers carved in stone. The Utah Olympic Park, near Park City, features the Olympic ski jumps, as well as bobsleigh, luge, and skeleton runs. Today, the Olympic Park is used for year-round training and competitions. Visitors can watch the various events and even ride a bobsled. The Utah Olympic Oval, in nearby Kearns, was home to the speed skating events and is now open to the public. Other popular Olympic venues include Soldier Hollow, the site of cross-country skiing events, southeast of Salt Lake near Heber City. Salt Lake City is near several world-class ski and summer resorts, including Snowbird, Alta, Brighton, Solitude, Park City Mountain Resort, and Deer Valley. The resorts cater to millions of visitors each year and offer year-round activities. Salt Lake City is home to a few major shopping centers. Trolley Square is an indoor and outdoor mall with independent art boutiques, restaurants, and national retailers. The buildings housing the shops are renovated trolley barns with cobblestone streets. The Gateway, an outdoor shopping mall, has many national restaurants, clothing retailers, a movie theater, the Clark Planetarium, the Discovery Gateway (formerly The Children's Museum of Utah), a music venue called The Depot, and the Olympic Legacy Plaza. City Creek Center is the city's newest major shopping center and features high-end retailers not found anywhere else in Utah. The Gateway, where the Clark Planetarium is located. On October 3, 2006, the LDS Church, which owned the ZCMI Center Mall and Crossroads Mall, both on Main Street, announced plans to demolish the malls, a skyscraper, and several other buildings to make way for the $1.5 billion City Creek Center redevelopment. It combined new office and residential buildings (one of which is the city's third-tallest building) around an outdoor shopping center featuring a stream, fountain, and other outdoor amenities; it opened on March 22, 2012. Sugar House is a neighborhood with a small town main street shopping area and numerous old parks, which is served by the S Line (formerly known as Sugar House Streetcar). Other attractions near Salt Lake City include Hogle Zoo, Timpanogos Cave National Monument, Golden Spike National Historic Site (where the world's first transcontinental railroad was joined), Lagoon Amusement Park, the Great Salt Lake, the Bonneville Salt Flats, Gardner Historic Village, one of the nation's largest dinosaur museums at Thanksgiving Point in Lehi, and the world's largest man-made excavation at Bingham Canyon Mine. Sports and recreation Winter sports, such as skiing and snowboarding, are popular activities in the Wasatch Mountains east of Salt Lake City. Eight ski resorts lie within 50 miles (80 km) of the city. Alta, Brighton, Solitude, and Snowbird all lie directly to the southeast in the Wasatch Mountains, while nearby Park City contains three more resorts. The popularity of the ski resorts has increased by a third since the 2002 Winter Olympics. Summer activities such as hiking, camping, rock climbing, mountain biking, and other related outdoor activities are popular in the mountains. The many small reservoirs and rivers in the Wasatch Mountains are popular for boating, fishing, and other water-related activities. Salt Lake City has hosted two of the most important and most watched games in basketball. The 1979 NCAA Division I Basketball Championship Game took place at the Special Events Center on the campus of the University of Utah, where Magic Johnson met Larry Bird for the first time in their legendary rivalry. Johnson's Michigan State team defeated Bird's previously unbeaten Indiana State team in the most watched college basketball game in history. Game 6 of the 1998 NBA Finals took place at the Delta Center, where Michael Jordan played his final game as a member of the Chicago Bulls. Jordan's Bulls defeated the Utah Jazz to win their sixth championship in the most watched game in the history of the National Basketball Association (NBA). Professional sports Vivint Smart Home Arena has been the home of the Utah Jazz since 1991. Salt Lake City is home to the Utah Jazz of the NBA, who moved from New Orleans in 1979 and play their home games in Vivint Smart Home Arena (formerly known as the Delta Center and later known as EnergySolutions Arena). They are the only team from one of the four top-level professional sports leagues in the state. The franchise has enjoyed steady success, at one point making the playoffs in 22 out of 25 seasons, led by Hall of Fame duo Karl Malone and John Stockton. The duo won two Western Conference championships together, but the franchise has yet to win an NBA championship. Salt Lake City was home to a professional basketball team, the Utah Stars of the American Basketball Association (ABA), between 1970–75. They won one championship in the city (in 1971) and enjoyed some of the strongest support of any ABA team, but they folded just months before the ABA–NBA merger, thus preventing them from being absorbed by the NBA. Their success may have had a hand in the decision by the struggling Jazz to relocate to Salt Lake City in 1979. Real Salt Lake of Major League Soccer was founded in 2004, initially playing at Rice-Eccles Stadium at the University of Utah before the soccer-specific Rio Tinto Stadium was completed in 2008 in neighboring Sandy. The team won their first MLS championship by defeating the Los Angeles Galaxy at the 2009 MLS Cup. RSL advanced to the finals of the CONCACAF Champions League in 2011 but lost 3–2 on aggregate, and also advanced to the 2013 MLS Cup Final. In 2019, the club expanded to include the Utah Royals FC, a professional women's team in the National Women's Soccer League. The city has also played host to several international soccer games. Utah Warriors is a professional Major League Rugby team that launched its first season in 2018, with Zions Bank Stadium as its home venue. Smith's Ballpark, home of the Salt Lake Bees Arena football expanded into the city in 2006 with the Utah Blaze of the Arena Football League. They recorded the highest average attendance in the league in their first season. After the original AFL folded in 2009, the future of the Blaze was unclear. However, a new league branded as the Arena Football League began play in 2010. The Blaze franchise was restored and is playing in the new league. The Salt Lake Stallions of the AAF were also based in the city. There are also two minor league teams in the city. The Salt Lake Bees, a Pacific Coast League Triple-A affiliate of the Los Angeles Angels, play at Smith's Ballpark and were established in 1994 as the Buzz. Their name was changed to the Stingers in 2002 and to the Bees, a historical Salt Lake City baseball team name, in 2006. The Utah Grizzlies ice hockey team of the ECHL were established in 2005, replacing the previous Grizzlies team that existed from when they relocated from Denver in 1995 to 2005 in the International Hockey League (IHL) and, later, the American Hockey League (AHL). They play at the Maverik Center in neighboring West Valley City. Club Sport League Venue Established Titles Attendance Utah Jazz Basketball National Basketball Association Vivint Smart Home Arena 1979 0 19,911 Real Salt Lake Soccer Major League Soccer Rio Tinto Stadium (in Sandy) 2004 1 20,160 Utah Royals FC Soccer National Women's Soccer League Rio Tinto Stadium (in Sandy) 2017 0 20,160 Utah Warriors Rugby Major League Rugby Zions Bank Stadium (in Herriman) 2017 0 5,000 Salt Lake Bees Baseball Pacific Coast League Smith's Ballpark 1994 0 15,411 Utah Grizzlies Hockey ECHL Maverik Center (in West Valley City) 2005 0 4,622 Real Monarchs SLC Soccer USL Championship Zions Bank Stadium (in Herriman) 2014 1 4,698 Salt Lake City Stars Basketball NBA G League Lifetime Activities Center (in Taylorsville) 2016 0 3,156 Salt Lake Stallions Football Alliance of American Football Rice-Eccles Stadium 2018 0 45,807 Amateur sports The University of Utah and Brigham Young University (BYU) both maintain large followings in the city, and the rivalry between the two colleges has a long and storied history. Despite the fact that Utah is a secular university, the rivalry is sometimes referred to as the Holy War because of BYU's status as an LDS Church-owned university. Until the 2011–12 season, they both played in the Mountain West Conference (MWC) of the NCAA's Division I and have played each other 100 times in football since 1896 (continuously since 1922). While Salt Lake City does not have a professional football team, the college football teams of both universities are popular in the city and the state as a whole. The University of Utah was the first school from a non-automatic qualifying conference to win two Bowl Championship Series (BCS) bowl games (and was the first from outside the BCS affiliated conferences to be invited to one) since the system was introduced in 1998. BYU defeated the University of Michigan in the 1984 Holiday Bowl to win the state's only college football national championship. The University of Utah was a part of the controversy surrounding the fairness of the BCS. Despite undefeated seasons in both 2004 and 2008, Utah was not invited to participate in the national championship in either season because it was a member of the MWC, a BCS non-automatic qualifying conference. College basketball also has an important presence in the city. The Utah Utes men's basketball team plays its home games at the Jon M. Huntsman Center on its campus in Salt Lake City. The team won the 1944 NCAA Basketball Tournament and made the final of the 1998 NCAA Basketball Tournament. The school has also hosted the NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament many times, both at the Huntsman Center and Vivint Smart Home Arena, including the Final Four of the famous 1979 tournament, when it was known as the Special Events Center. The Utah Avalanche, formed in January 2011, were a development rugby league team for the now defunct American National Rugby League. In June 2012, Salt Lake City hosted the IRB Junior World Rugby Trophy, a major international rugby union tournament for under-20 national teams from "second-tier" nations. Utah became the first state outside Minnesota where bandy exists when Olympic Bandy Club was formed in Salt Lake City. Salt Lake is also home to two roller derby leagues: the Salt City Derby Girls and Wasatch Roller Derby, both of which field travel teams. Transportation Main article: Transportation in Salt Lake City Roads The beginning of State Street at the foot of the Utah State Capitol Salt Lake City lies at the convergence of two cross-country freeways; I-15 running north–south, and I-80, which connects downtown with Salt Lake City International Airport to the west and exits to the east through Parley's Canyon. I-215 forms a 270-degree loop around the city. SR-201 extends to the western Salt Lake City suburbs. The Legacy Parkway (SR-67), a controversial and oft-delayed freeway, opened September 2008, heading north from I-215 into Davis County along the east shore of the Great Salt Lake. Travel to and from Davis County is complicated by geography as roads have to squeeze through the narrow opening between the Great Salt Lake to the west and the Wasatch Mountains to the east. Only four roads run between the two counties to carry the load of rush hour traffic from Davis County. Salt Lake City's surface street system is laid out on a simple grid pattern. Road names are numbered with a north, south, east, or west designation, with the grid originating at the southeast corner of Temple Square downtown. One of the visions of Brigham Young and the early settlers was to create wide, spacious streets, which characterizes downtown. The grid pattern remains fairly intact in the city, except on the East Bench, where geography makes it impossible. The entire Salt Lake Valley is laid out on the same numbered grid system, although it becomes increasingly irregular further into the suburbs. Many streets carry both a name and a grid coordinate. Usually both can be used as an address. US-89 enters the city from the northwest, becomes 900 West Street through the northern part of the city, and exits Salt Lake City as State Street (100 East). Public transportation UTA transit buses at the Salt Lake City Intermodal Hub (Salt Lake Central Station) Salt Lake City's mass transit service is operated by the Utah Transit Authority (UTA) and includes a bus system, light rail, and a commuter rail line. Intercity services are provided by Amtrak and various intercity bus lines. These services are all interconnected at the Salt Lake City Intermodal Hub (Salt Lake Central Station), west of the city center. The Brookings Institution in 2011 rated Salt Lake City's mass transit system as the nation's third-best at connecting people to jobs, providing access to 59% of the jobs in the valley. Transit bus service UTA's bus system extends throughout the Wasatch Front from Brigham City in the north to Santaquin in the south and as far west as Grantsville, as well as east to Park City. UTA also operates routes to the ski resorts in Big and Little Cottonwood Canyons, as well as Sundance in Provo Canyon, during the ski season (typically November to April). Approximately 60,000 people ride the bus daily, although ridership has reportedly declined since TRAX was constructed. Light rail Main article: TRAX (light rail) TRAX Green Line train at the Gallivan Plaza Station The 44.8-mile (72.1 km) light rail system, called TRAX, has three lines. The Blue Line, which opened in 1999 and was expanded in 2008, travels from the Salt Lake City Intermodal Hub (Salt Lake Central Station), south to Draper. The Red Line, which originally opened in 2001 and was expanded in 2011, runs from the University of Utah, southwest through Salt Lake to Daybreak in South Jordan. The Green Line, opened in 2011 and runs from the Salt Lake City International Airport to West Valley City (via Downtown Salt Lake City), with the extension to the airport having opened in April 2013. The system has 50 stations, 23 of which are within the city limits. Daily ridership averaged 60,600 as of the fourth quarter of 2012, making TRAX the ninth most-ridden light rail system in the country. Commuter rail Main article: FrontRunner FrontRunner at the North Temple Bridge/Guadalupe Station in Salt Lake City The commuter rail system, FrontRunner, opened April 26, 2008, extends from the Intermodal Hub north through Davis County to Pleasant View on the northern border of Weber County. Daily ridership on the line averages 7,800, as of the fourth quarter of 2012. An expansion called "FrontRunner South", which extended FrontRunner to Provo in central Utah County, was completed in December 2012 as part of UTA's FrontLines 2015 project. These extensions were made possible by a sales tax hike for road improvements, light rail, and commuter rail approved by voters on November 7, 2006. In addition, a $500 million letter of intent was signed by the Federal Transit Administration for all four of the planned TRAX extensions in addition to the FrontRunner extension to Provo. In March 2018, UTA announced FrontRunner would no longer run from Ogden to Pleasant View beginning in mid-August. Intercity bus and rail services Amtrak, the national passenger rail system, provides service to Salt Lake City operating its California Zephyr daily between Chicago and Emeryville, California. Greyhound Lines serves Salt Lake City as well. Their nine daily buses provide service to Denver, Reno, Las Vegas, and Portland, Oregon. Both of these stations are at the Salt Lake City Intermodal Hub. Air transportation Salt Lake International Airport sits between downtown Salt Lake City and the Great Salt Lake. Salt Lake City International Airport is 4 miles (6.4 km) west of downtown, and falls entirely within the boundary of Salt Lake City. Delta Air Lines operates a hub at the airport, serving over 100 non-stop destinations in the United States, Mexico, and Canada, as well as Paris, London and Amsterdam. SkyWest Airlines operates its largest hub at the airport as Delta Connection, and serves 243 cities as Delta Connection and United Express. The airport is served by four UTA bus routes, and a UTA-operated light rail line (TRAX) opened services on April 14, 2013. A total of 22,029,488 passengers flew through Salt Lake City International Airport in 2007, representing a 2.19% increase over 2006. The airport ranks as the 21st busiest airport in the United States in total passengers, is consistently rated first in the country in on-time arrivals and departures, and has the second-lowest number of cancellations. The airport is currently undergoing a $3.6 billion redesign that is expected to be completed in 2024, resulting in a complete reworking of the terminals and parking areas. There are two general aviation airports nearby, although they lie outside Salt Lake City: South Valley Regional Airport in West Jordan Skypark Airport in Woods Cross. Cycling Salt Lake City is considered a bicycle-friendly city. In 2010, Salt Lake City was designated as a Silver-level Bicycle Friendly Community by the League of American Bicyclists, placing the city in the top 18 bicycling cities in the U.S. with a population of at least 100,000. Many streets in the city have bike lanes, and the city has published a bicycle map. However, off-road biking in the valley has suffered significantly as access to trails and paths has declined with the increase of housing developments and land privatization. In 2012, the Salt Lake Transportation Division launched BikeSLC.com, which consolidates the city's information about bicycle routes, bicycle safety, and promotions. The website includes a form for business owners to request bicycle parking racks to be installed on public property free of charge close to their businesses, a service that has a months-long waiting list. Salt Lake City was the first US city to use the "Green Shared Lane", or "super sharrow", a 4-foot (1.2 m) wide green band down the middle of a travel lane where adding a dedicated bike lane is unfeasible. Other cities such as Long Beach, Oakland, and Edina, Minnesota have introduced similar designs. These four cities are participating in a study by the Federal Highway Administration to measure the effect of the design on automobile speed and passing distance when overtaking bicycles, crashes between automobiles and bicycles, and whether it encourages more bicycle ridership, along with other metrics. On September 25, 2010, UTA in partnership with Salt Lake City, the Utah Department of Transportation, the Wasatch Front Regional Council, and the Mayor's Bicycle Advisory Committee, opened a Bicycle Transit Center (BTC) at the Intermodal Hub. The BTC is anticipated to serve multi-modal commuters from TRAX and FrontRunner, as well as providing a secure bicycle parking space for bicycle tourists who want to tour the city on foot or transit. In April 2013, Salt Lake City launched a bike share program known as GREENbike. The program allows users to pay $5 per day to access bicycles, with the option of purchasing a weekly or annual pass. The program launched with ten stations in the downtown core. By October 2014, the number of stations had expanded to 20. In addition to the bike-sharing program, eighty businesses in the city participate in the Bicycle Benefits program, which provides discounts to customers who arrive by bicycle. The city is also home to the Salt Lake City Bicycle Collective. As a result of this increasing support, Salt Lake City's on-road bikeway network has grown to encompass 200 lane miles. In July 2014, the city began construction of a protected bicycle lane on a 1.35 miles (2.17 km) segment of 300 South between 300 West and 600 East. The project received significant opposition from business owners and residents along the route because of concerns about the 30% reduction in car parking spaces and disruptions resulting from construction. The construction proceeded in stages, with the last stage completed in October 2014. The performance of the protected bicycle lane (specifically, its role in encouraging more bicycle ridership) will influence future plans for making the city more bicycle-friendly. One example of the city's cycling and walking routes is the loop around City Creek Canyon on Bonneville Boulevard. The city has designated the road as one lane only (one-way) for motor vehicles, turning the other lane over to two-way cyclists and pedestrians. From the last Monday in May to the last weekend in September, City Creek Canyon Road itself is closed to motor vehicles on odd-numbered days, while bicycles are prohibited on even-numbered days and holidays. Bicycles are allowed every day for the rest of the year. Sister cities Salt Lake City has several sister cities/towns, including: City/Town Division Nation/Region Oruro Flag of Oruro.svg Oruro Department Bolivia Sarajevo Sarajevo Canton Bosnia and Herzegovina Manaus Amazonas Brazil Thurles County Tipperary Ireland Tabriz East Azerbaijan Province Iran Izhevsk Udmurtia Russia Turin Piedmont Italy Matsumoto Nagano Prefecture Japan Singapore Singapore Singapore Chernivtsi Chernivtsi Oblast Ukraine Trujillo La Libertad Flag(PER).png La Libertad Region Peru Keelung Keelung Taiwan Autoflowering Feminized Cannabis Seeds Photoperiod CBD Feminized Cannabis Seeds Photoperiod Feminized Cannabis Seeds Plant Fertilizers Plant Nutrient Kits Plant Stimulants Autoflowering Feminized Cannabis Seeds: Zkittlez Autoflowering Feminized Seeds Zkittlez Auto is a feminized cannabis strain that has very high THC content. It has a strong candy flavor and a refreshing scent. The plant is compact with multiple bud sites with the main cola growing vertically and producing several lateral branches on the side. Zkittlez flowers naturally within 9-10 weeks of planting before proceeding to produce large frost-white buds. Zkittlez Auto has sufficient spacing between nodes to allow for proper aeration and is highly resistant to pests and diseases. This plant is versatile and responds well to light training methods for maximum production. It is a sturdy cannabis strain that is ideal for beginners who want to try their hand in cannabis farming. Zkittlez Auto is also great for commercial projects because it yields up to 500g/m2 with proper care. For the best results, always support Zkittlez Auto plants with a cable to help them stand firm during the maturity stage when bugs bulge and start to ripen. Zkittlez requires proper spacing to stimulate optimal flowering and ripening of the buds. It is a heavy feeder that requires adequate fertilization to fulfill its immense potential. Zkittlez Auto gives an immediate high that dissipates gradually, causing relaxation that may last for up to 3 hours. The Indica high from this weed is not overwhelming and enables you to suppress stressors and anxiety without losing focus. The Zkittlez Auto strain is great for midday or night time puffs and is suitable for both novices and hardcore stoners. When used as an additive, it gives a grapefruit taste with hints of chocolate. Gorilla Glue #4 Autoflowering Feminized Seeds If you're searching for an easy to grow, high-THC cannabis strain that will dazzle even the most discerning herb- lovers, look no further than award-winning Gorilla Glue #4. Also known as Original Glue, Gorilla Glue #4 took 1st place in both the 2014 Michigan and LA Cannabis Cups and earned the top prize in the prestigious High Times Jamaican World Cup. True to its name, Gorilla Glue #4 plants produce giant colas of sticky buds with furry orange pistils. The expert breeders at GG strains combined three classic cultivars to create a sativa-dominant hybrid that's mold-resistant and ultra high-yielding. Gorilla Glue #4's dense flowers impart a sweet, earthy flavor with hints of citrus and a pungent diesel aroma. You'll want to make sure to install a good filter and keep an extra pair of trimming sheers handy when you cultivate these gooey, fragrant buds. Autoflowering Gorilla Glue #4 seeds allow growers to cultivate several harvests in one season. With perpetual harvests and an extra high-THC content, Gorilla Glue #4 has become one of the most popular cannabis strains to grow indoors or outdoors. Bubba Kush Autoflowering Feminized Seeds Adding just a touch of Ruderalis to Bubba Kush sped up this classic American photoperiod strain so that it finishes in weeks instead of months. You can now harvest huge, swollen buds that reek of fuel and earth in just 75 days from seed without even adjusting your lights. Auto Bubba Kush couldn't be easier. It's a great choice for beginners or more experienced growers who're in a time crunch. Northern Lights Autoflowering Feminized Seeds Auto Northern Lights is very similar in characteristics to its feminized version, except that it will produce buds in 65 days and does not require a lightcycle change to flower. Blueberry Autoflowering Feminized Seeds Blueberry is a fruity yet hardy little flower that grows well both indoors and out. Blueberry was crossed with Cannabis Ruderalis resulting in the auto-flowering variety that will flower in just a few weeks regardless of changes in daylight. It's also disease and pest resistant, making it perfect for the novice grower. The plants are small, growing to roughly 32? but don't let the small size fool you, this little plant will produce a decent yield of dense buds heavy with resin and speckled with bursts of the bright purples and reds associated with its namesake fruit. The scent and flavors are sweet and heavily lean toward berries and fruits with undertones of pine and vanilla. This Indica dominant hybrid strain is perfect for growing in smaller spaces and gives a nice, relaxing high to help you de-stress and leave the worries of your day behind. White Widow Autoflowering Feminized Seeds White Widow is well known to produce an enormous amount of resin and white trichomes that cover the plant like fallen snow. It is also easy to grow and adapts well to any system. Narcotic effects are very strong and intense. White Widow is a very popular, top choice because it grows easily, to a medium height and delivers large yields of potent buds. Wedding Cake Autoflowering Feminized Seeds Auto Wedding Cake is very similar in characteristics to its feminized version, except that it will produce buds in 65 days and does not require a lightcycle change to flower. Bruce Banner #3 Autoflowering Feminized Seeds Auto Bruce Banner #3 is very similar in characteristics to its feminized version, except that it will produce buds in 65 days and does not require a lightcycle change to flower. Girl Scout Cookies Autoflowering Feminized Seeds Who wouldn't want an endless supply of Girl Scout Cookies? With autoflowering GSC cannabis seeds, you can do just that. Our feminized, autoflowering seeds allow both beginner and experienced gardeners to yield several harvests in just one growing season. Autoflowering Girl Scout Cookie plants start flowering in 65 days with no change in light levels. Cookie Fam of northern California deftly combined two near landrace cultivars to produce a classic strain that's popular among cannabis breeders and consumers alike. Girl Scout Cookie's frosty buds impart a sweet, fruity taste with an earthy and slightly minty aroma. Girl Scout Cookies is an indica-dominant strain with a 60:40 indica-to-sativa ratio. The result of Cookie Fam's exquisite genetic combination is a cannabis variety with an upbeat vibe that's ideal for creative inspiration or relaxing on a lazy day. Girl Scout Cookies plants grow in twisting helixes adorned with purple sugar leaves and fiery orange pistils. GSC cannabis varieties respond exceptionally well to Sea of Green training techniques. When treated right, GSC cannabis plants produce abundant trichomes, containing up to 28% THC. It's no wonder that Girl Scout Cookies has garnered numerous Cannabis Cup awards. LSD Autoflowering Feminized Seeds Auto LSD is very similar in characteristics to its feminized version, except that it will produce buds in 65 days and does not require a lightcycle change to flower. Devil XXL Autoflowering Feminized Seeds Devil XXL is an auto flowering strain that grows well indoors and outdoors. Finishes in 65 days from seed. A big benefit of this strain is a massive yield, 600 grams per square metre indoor. Buds are potent, with a high THC value of 19%. Parents are Jack Herer and Big Devil. Blueberry + Lemon Haze Autoflowering Feminized Seeds New to growing or looking for a low-maintenance seed? This auto-flowering blueberry and lemon haze strain is fresh, deliciously aromatic, and best of all, a dream to grow. It boasts herbal and peppery notes in its scent but has a surprisingly sweet, fruit-forward flavor. With 16.5% THC this is a bold, Indica-forward strain that is known to produce an energetic, joyful state. For growers, the benefits are endless. Its auto-flowering nature means it could be producing in 8 weeks and offering highly dense flower that holds up against diseases and pests. Cream Autoflowering Feminized Seeds Cream won awards for best indoor hydroponic and best genetics. The effects of Cream begin much like those of a pure sativa, giving the user focus, energy and a spark of creativity, but these are replaced in the later stages by sedation, relaxation and an increase in appetite. Moby Autoflowering Feminized Seeds Auto Moby is very similar in characteristics to its feminized version, except that it will produce buds in 65 days and does not require a lightcycle change to flower. #5 Autoflowering Feminized Seeds Auto #5 is very similar in characteristics to its feminized version, except that it will produce buds in 65 days and does not require a lightcycle change to flower. Very easy to grow and delivers consistent good results in all grow systems. Very good for beginners. Photoperiod CBD Feminized Cannabis Seeds: 1:20 THC to CBD Photoperiod CBD Seeds 1:20 CBD:THC is a feminized marijuana strain that produces 20 times the amount of CBD compared to THC. This cannabinoid ratio is very unique. Most feminized marijuana strains produce buds with less than 1% CBD and 15%-20% THC. And most CBD strains produce buds with an even amount of THC to CBD. The very high CBD compared to THC makes this strain very different to all other strains. There are very few strains like it and until very recently CBD strains like this did not exist at all. Blueberry Photoperiod CBD Seeds (1:16) We crossed our Blueberry with a pure Afghan CBD variety. Then, an F2 was obtained with same qualities of its Afghan grandfather. Very stable. 1% THC to 16 parts CBD. Lemon Skunk Photoperiod CBD Seeds With this revised blend of Lemon Skunk, the happy, energetic head high is lowered to a mild, peaceful sense of well- being that leaves the brain clear and functional so the enhanced levels of CBD can work their magic behind the scenes. Subtle enough for the first-time medical marijuana patient, CBD Lemon Skunk is also a perfect choice for recreational use before work or daily chores. Super Silver Photoperiod CBD Seeds Critical Kush Photoperiod CBD Seeds CBD Critical Kush is a calm, peaceful variety of medical cannabis that mixes genetics from two legendary breeds, OG Kush and Critical Mass, with a high-yielding CBD strain. The resulting plants are nothing short of spectacular when it comes to yield as well as quality. Regardless of experience level, most growers are pleasantly surprised by the sheer volume of buds at harvest time. Expect the flowers to be fully mature as early as seven weeks but no later than nine. 6%-8% THC, 6-8% CBD Northern Lights Photoperiod CBD Seeds This is the CBD version of our popular selling Northern Lights. The CBD has been bred up to: THC: 10% / CBD: 9%. Critical Mass Photoperiod CBD Seeds Excellent pick for outdoor. Flowers very fast compared to other strains. Photoperiod Feminized Cannabis Seeds: White Tahoe Photoperiod Feminized Seeds White Tahoe Cookies is a perfect example of what Colorado's breeders are contributing to the cannabis community. This mix of The White, Tahoe OG and Girl Scout Cookies was first introduced by Denver's Archive Seeds several years ago, but its fame has since spread around the globe. It still smells like original Girl Scout Cookies, but you'll also detect strong notes of sweet hash as well as subtler hints of OG fuel within the heavier layer of mint. Bruce Banner #3 Photoperiod Feminized Seeds Bruce Banner is an OG Kush X Strawberry Diesel cross that offers a perfect balance of euphoric head high and pain- relieving body stone, making it a top choice with both recreational and medical marijuana users. Out of the five distinct phenotypes, Bruce Banner #3 is the most popular due to its heavy Strawberry Diesel lean and uncanny ability to meet extremely high THC levels every single time. Gorilla Glue #4 Photoperiod Feminized Seeds With this choice, you'll get big, robust plants generously coated in large, swollen buds hardened with more than enough resin to make them feel surprisingly heavy in your hand. The strong, heady aroma adds to the exceptional bag appeal of Gorilla Glue's dried flowers. Mochalope Photoperiod Feminized Seeds If you are looking for an indoor/outdoor strain that can be used by serious cannabis farmers as well as home growers, this feminized Mochalope strain is for you. The seed's origin is an Oregon Afghani female clone and a Chocolope male which resulted in a spectacularly fragrant and robust strain. This photoperiod seed is desirable for its high yields, which can reach 600 grams per plant, infamous THC potency, and growing ease. Mochalope is a blissful blend of chocolate, coffee, and herbal notes that you will fall in love with for both its rich scent and its full body euphoric effects. With a THC level of 22%, this is the strain made for the cannabis aficionado. When growing outdoors, the plant prefers some shade, particularly in the heat of the early afternoon. Chem Dawg #4 Photoperiod Feminized Seeds Dried Chem Dawg #4 flowers have been lab tested at a full 27% THC for a strong, long-lasting high that expands into a very relaxing, full-body stone that'll lock even the most tolerant smoker to the couch for hours. When given plenty of light, these plants have a vigorous start with measurable growth almost every day. Even beginners can pull in massive yields. The light-green buds are big and completely drenched in visible resin with an abundance of bright-orange hairs. Purple Punch Photoperiod Feminized Seeds A classic Cali strain, Purple Punch is an indica hybrid beloved for its fruity aromatics and trichome-rich buds. Although we don't know who created this popular purp, there's no doubt it contains genetics from two iconic indicas: Larry OG and Granddaddy Purple. These two powerhouse strains give Purple Punch a THC count around 20 percent and about 1 percent CBD content. Like most indica-heavy strains, Purple Punch has a short, bushy appearance with densely packed buds. Typically, this hybrid also has bright green leaves with reddish-orange pistils if you grow it indoors. As with many other strains, you have to expose Purple Punch to slightly cooler temps if you want to bring out those lovely purple patches. Do-Si-Dos Photoperiod Feminized Seeds As an Indica-dominant strain, Dos I Dos quickly develops a sturdy structure with a strong main stem and plenty of weight-bearing side branches. As the plants mature, the buds swell, crystallize and start to emit a strong pungent aroma that's sweet, earthy and just a touch floral. Near harvest time, the leaves will start to fade and reveal a mix of lime green and lavender hues. The appearance is simply spectacular! Strawberry Banana Photoperiod Feminized Seeds All you have to do is open a jar of cured Strawberry Banana buds to find out how this 70% Indica earned its name. Within seconds, your nose will fill with the rich scent of ripe bananas and sweet berries. The fruit theme carries through to the flavour. As the thick, smooth smoke coats your tongue, it'll taste just as sweet and fruity as a strawberry-banana smoothie. Granddaddy Purple Photoperiod Feminized Seeds Produces big, dense flowers with a deep purple hue on a short, bushy plant with big leaves and tight nodes. Makes for an excellent producer when vertical space is limited. The purple in the buds is beautiful on its own, but when combined with the orange hairs and white trichrome crystals, the flowers are nothing less than spectacular! Northern Lights Photoperiod Feminized Seeds Northern Lights is a favourite strain for indoor growing for many very good reasons. The plants stay well under three feet tall with practically no stretch, they are very resilient and thrive under stressful conditions, and the flowering time rarely exceeds seven weeks. Yet, yields are surprisingly high considering the short stature. Zkittlez Photoperiod Feminized Seeds Sparkly images of Zkittlez' flowers are flooding social media due to the overwhelming demand for this strain. Wins at both the San Francisco and Michigan Cannabis Cups in 2015 and the 2016 Emerald Cup made the entire weed world stand up and take notice, and it continues to be one of the most requested strains available today. Blue Dream Photoperiod Feminized Seeds Blue Dream is one of the most popular strains in North America for a number of reasons. The feelings are an intense initial rush and a pervasive high followed by a relaxing plateau. It won't make you drowsy despite repeated sessions. Like most Blueberry-based strains, Blue Dream isn't a particularly noxious option either, thanks to the lack of terpenes that make Sour Diesel, for example, so pungent. The aroma is light and effervescent with hints of citrus and earth. You can expect to see very distinctive blue-green buds that are dense if you grow it properly. LSD Photoperiod Feminized Seeds https://drseeds.net/product/lsd-photoperiod-feminized-seeds/ The high isn't LSD feminized's only appealing feature. It's extremely easy to grow from seed and can yield as high as 700 grams per square meter indoor, or 18 ounces per plant outdoor, after about nine weeks of bloom. If you're growing in a challenging environment that's prone to mold, mildew or other pests, feminized LSD seeds are up to the challenge. They resist diseases that quickly kill less hardy plants. On average, heights for this Indica-dominant hybrid range from 90 to 100 cm indoor. Outdoors, its short-medium stature makes it suitable for large planters. Alien Technology Photoperiod Feminized Seeds The exact lineage of Alien Technology is a mystery. It is a land-race Afghan strain that is reputed to have been acquired in seed form from a small village in Afghanistan by a US soldier, and gifted to OBSoul33t who flowered it and selected the best phenotypes. Testing shows THC levels up to 19%, and an indoor yield time of 8-9 weeks. True to its Indica heritage, this strain will grow short plants that are robust and produce tightly packed thick buds with an aroma described as spicy, sweet, and diesel-like. Buds from this strain are fluffy and light green, covered in orange hairs, and trichome production results in a mesmerizing white covering of trichomes. It is suitable for growing outdoors and outdoors, hardy in the cold, yields an average amount,and pruning is recommended because leaf and bud structure are dense. It increases yield with hydroponic and S.O.G. systems. Bubba Kush Photoperiod Feminized Seeds Bubba Kush has been a favourite with marijuana smokers on the West Coast. It's a powerful Indica derived from OG Kush and a mystery strain from New Orleans with a near-narcotic buzz that'll relax your body and leave you locked to the couch for hours in a dreamy state of mental bliss. When used for medicinal purposes, feminized Bubba Kush has been found to relieve stress, depression, insomnia and lack of appetite. Oregon Peach Photoperiod Feminized Seeds Recreational smokers who are looking for utter and total couchlock might not be bowled over by Oregon Peach's smooth, mellow high, but medical marijuana patients lucky enough to find this herb in their local dispensary can't get enough. Almost immediately, a happy euphoria spreads across your brain, giving you a sense of purpose and motivation. That pleasant feeling transitions into a mild, comfortable body stone that quickly and quietly eliminates pain, spasms and even mild depression with only a slight amount of dreamy sedation. Sunset Sherbert Photoperiod Feminized Seeds The strong, potent high from Sunset Sherbet is thanks to its ratio of eighty-five percent indica to fifteen-percent sativa with a THC level between fifteen and nineteen percent. This is an easy strain to grow and maintain making it perfect for first-time cannabis growers. Sherbet weed grows to a medium height with thick, bushy stems and dense flowers. Experienced cultivators enjoy adding it to their grow for variety and for its aesthetic appeal and intoxicating aroma. Grow sherbet in a Mediterranian-like environment with daylight temps of around 70 degrees and slightly chillier nighttime temps just before flowering. Sherbet grows best in soil rather than with hydroponics. When grown outdoors, harvest time is in late September or early October. Super Skunk Photoperiod Feminized Seeds Super Skunk has a pungent aroma, enhanced with a nice sweetness, and the flowers are compact and potent. The sticky buds are bright green in colour and complemented with orange and brown hairs. Super Skunk flourishes outside, but it can also provide medium to high yields with the proper indoor system. Buds offer deep relaxation that alleviates stress and anxiety and a spacey high. Orange Bud Photoperiod Feminized Seeds Orange Bud is an original skunk variety created by breeding two parents of the Skunk family The goal with breeding was to find the fruitiest phenotypes available without losing yield or quality. A hardy and stable original Cannabis Cup award-winning variety, this strain will yield heavy with buds that are long, densely filled in, and covered with bright orange hairs and an overload of THC crystals. With a flowering time of 8-9 weeks, this strain is a hybrid with 65% Indica. This strain grows well indoors and out and adapts well to all growing mediums and techniques. Cinderella 99 + Blueberry Photoperiod Feminized Seeds A sativa dominant hybrid that delivers very beautiful blue tinted buds with orange hairs, and a delightful bouquet smell combining notes of wildberry, pineapple and wood. High yielding with excellent stability makes her a growers dream plant. Blueberry Photoperiod Feminized Seeds Blueberry was first bred in the 1970s by DJ Short, and it's still one of the most popular cannabis strains on the market today. Both the taste and the smell are sweet and fruity with unmistakable notes of fresh blueberries. It is one of the loveliest Indicas you can grow. Most plants will produce big, resin-covered buds that have glittery bursts of blue mixed in with the green. White Widow Photoperiod Feminized Seeds True to her name, White Widow quickly transforms from a healthy green plant to a snow-covered beauty, packing on a copious amount of frosty resin as her buds develop and swell into massive flowers. Indoors, generous yields mature fully in only about 60 days after this proven producer is switched to a 12/12 lighting schedule. Girl Scout Cookies Photoperiod Feminized Seeds This is a complex, multi-faceted strain that will surprise you! GSC has a sweet, rich bouquet that includes notes of hops, lemon and spice. Bright green calyxes, purple leaves and neon orange hairs make this strain visually distinctive. Powerplant Photoperiod Feminized Seeds Fueled by genuine South African Sativa genetics, PowerPlant sends your mind flying within seconds. The high is crystal clear and functional, leaving you feeling energized and motivated for hours at a time. G13 Photoperiod Feminized Seeds The G13 strain of cannabis supposedly was initially developed from a research facility of the United States government, or so the rumor says. Users report that G13 provides them with a euphoria that is pleasant and socially manageable, making G13 a favorite amongst marijuana users. This variety of marijuana also has a sweet and earthy flavor that many people enjoy. G13 grows well hydroponically in a sea of green set up. This setting produces enormous buds. When growing this strain of marijuana, give the plants plenty of space between the branches to provide the buds with plenty of room to get as large as possible. G13 also grows well outdoors, because it handles cooler temperatures better than many strains of pot. Amnesia Gold Photoperiod Feminized Seeds The Amnesia Gold cannabis strain is an exceptionally popular one for growers looking to supply prized products because it features a THC content of about 19% and a CBD content of around 1%. It is a feminized product of a cross between Amnesia and Lennon Haze and is a true hybrid consisting of 80% Sativa and 20% Indica. It is widely praised for its fast-growing properties and strong potency. Lemon Garlic Photoperiod Feminized Seeds Lemon Garlic is a perfect strain for newcomers and oldschoolers alike. Lovingly developed over the years, Lemon Garlic yields only the most desirable cuts of spicy green with hints of citrus, pine, and garlic. The buds are densely stacked and flush with trichomes. Popular in the evening, the strain is dominantly herbal with a not-so-subtle peppery and citrus chaser. Great for chilling in front of your favorite movie or video game, The texture is perfect for a joint roll, and although samplers raved about the relaxation benefits, didn't state any concerns about feeling overly sleepy. Give Lemon Garlic a try yourself and experience the flavors, aromas, and sensations. #5 Photoperiod Feminized Seeds #5 delivers a very relaxing and long lasting high. A smooth smoke with tropical fruit flavour. Grows to a medium size with light green leaves and bright orange pistols. Long, compact and slender buds that glitter with crystal. Skywalker Photoperiod Feminized Seeds Skywalker, a hybrid strain with an even 50/50 indica/sativa split, originated as a Mazar X Blueberry cross. It carries a milder version of the traditional indica body high and general feelings of relaxation, but the sativa component prevents the more extreme sedative effects and couchlock from happening. Clocking in at around 15% THC and a negligible amount of CBD, it isn't the most potent strain around, but it's the perfect strain for novices. Its lower THC contents and indica component reduce the risk of paranoia, and growing is uniquely easy. Skywalker plants usually have better outcomes if grown indoors. 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County, Oklahoma Orange County, California Palm Beach County, Florida Pierce County, Washington Pima County, Arizona Pinellas County, Florida Polk County, Florida Prince George's County, Maryland Queens County, New York Salt Lake County, Utah San Joaquin County, California San Mateo County, California Santa Clara County, California Shelby County, Tennessee Snohomish County, Washington Suffolk County, New York Tarrant County, Texas Travis County, Texas Ventura County, California Wake County, North Carolina Wayne County, Michigan Westchester County, New York Will County, Illinois Worcester County, Massachusetts LED Lighting How to sprout cannabis seeds About Hydroponic Fertilizers Become


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https://worcestercannabis.ml/
/LED_Lighting/
/Sprout_Seeds/
/Hydroponic_Fertilizers/
/Become_Affiliate/

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You can find details about all Mobile Applications realized by Vasile Avram by visiting the website http://www.avrams.ro or http://www.avrams.eu
You can contact Vasile Avram at e-mail:
vasileavram@ie.ase.ro
web@avrams.ro

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